Acute phase proteins in healthy goats: establishment of reference intervals.

Acute inflammatory processes can trigger increased production of acute phase proteins (APPs) that can be useful biomarkers of inflammation. APPs are diverse and include proteins involved in coagulation, opsonization, iron regulation, and limitation of tissue injury. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein have been proposed as useful APPs in goats. APPs can differ markedly by species, therefore species-specific reference intervals and studies are necessary. The objective of this study was to determine species-specific reference intervals for 4 APPs in goats. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein were measured in in 54 clinically normal adult goats. APPs were measured using goat-specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance to compare sexes and breeding status. Reference Value Advisor was used to calculate reference limits according to the IFCC-CLSI guidelines. Only 1 APP was found to vary in healthy animals; serum haptoglobin was increased in lactating animals and decreased in pregnant does in their second trimester when compared with open, nonlactating does. No sex-based differences were seen for any of the APPs measured. We report normal reference intervals for 4 serum APPs that may be useful as disease markers. Haptoglobin should be interpreted with caution in animals with unknown pregnancy status. Further studies are needed to determine whether these APPs are useful biomarkers in goat disease states.
AuthorsMeera C Heller, Jennifer L Johns
JournalJournal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc (J Vet Diagn Invest) Vol. 27 Issue 2 Pg. 177-81 (Mar 2015) ISSN: 1943-4936 [Electronic] United States
PMID25776542 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Copyright© 2015 The Author(s).
Chemical References
  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Biomarkers
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Haptoglobins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Serum Amyloid A Protein
  • lipopolysaccharide-binding protein
  • Acute-Phase Proteins (metabolism)
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers (blood)
  • Carrier Proteins (blood)
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (veterinary)
  • Female
  • Goat Diseases (blood, immunology)
  • Goats
  • Haptoglobins (metabolism)
  • Inflammation (blood, immunology, veterinary)
  • Lactation
  • Male
  • Membrane Glycoproteins (blood)
  • Missouri
  • Pregnancy
  • Reference Values
  • Serum Amyloid A Protein (metabolism)

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