|1.||Dyspnea (Shortness of Breath)
|2.||Asthma (Bronchial Asthma)
|3.||Respiratory Sounds (Crackle)
|1.||Fujimura, Masaki: 39 articles (06/2015 - 04/2002)|
|2.||Tatar, M: 30 articles (12/2013 - 01/2003)|
|3.||Chang, Anne B: 27 articles (12/2015 - 01/2002)|
|4.||Dicpinigaitis, Peter V: 26 articles (06/2015 - 06/2002)|
|5.||Millqvist, Eva: 25 articles (01/2015 - 06/2002)|
|6.||Birring, Surinder S: 23 articles (12/2015 - 01/2003)|
|7.||Niimi, Akio: 21 articles (12/2015 - 01/2004)|
|8.||Smith, Jaclyn A: 21 articles (07/2015 - 06/2007)|
|9.||Morice, Alyn H: 21 articles (12/2014 - 10/2002)|
|10.||Plevkova, J: 20 articles (09/2015 - 09/2004)|
|1.||Lidocaine (Xylocaine)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/2009 - "With the increasing use of sedation, including opiates that possess central cough suppressant effects, and the potential for serious clinical toxicity, the need for evidence regarding the efficacy of topical lidocaine is important. "
05/01/2001 - "In these selected patients, nebulized lidocaine was very effective in suppressing cough, and thus buying time for more definitive therapies to work. "
05/01/1994 - "A 52-year-old man with intractable cough refractory to standard therapy was treated successfully with chronic nebulized lidocaine. "
12/01/2004 - "IV lidocaine is effective in suppressing the cough reflex of tracheal intubation, extubation, bronchography, bronchoscopy, and laryngoscopy. "
06/01/1990 - "The apnoeic reflex was not eliminated at plasma lignocaine concentrations greater than 7.0 micrograms ml-1, whereas the expiration reflex, cough reflex and spasmodic panting were eliminated effectively by plasma concentrations of lignocaine greater than 3.5, 2.8 and 2.2 micrograms ml-1, respectively."
|2.||Capsaicin (Zostrix)FDA Link
01/01/2007 - "A novel pyridazinylpiperazine analog TPRV-1 inhibitor can inhibit the cough reflex, induced by both low pH and capsaicin, suggesting that it could be clinically beneficial in treatment of cough."
01/01/2007 - "The capsaicin concentration threshold for eliciting a cough was significantly greater, 39.3 microM (+/-5.6 SEM). "
01/01/2006 - "Compared with tidal breathing, inhalation of capsaicin with the dosimeter method caused a significantly greater number of coughs and respiratory symptoms in both patients and controls. "
10/19/2005 - "There was a significant improvement in the Leicester Cough Questionnaire symptom scores from 80.8 points (SD 13.2) to 95.1 (SD 17) (p = 0.02) and in a 6-point scale of cough scores, but there was no change in capsaicin cough response. "
06/01/2002 - "Suplatast improved the cough scores and the cough threshold for capsaicin in patients with CVA without significant side effects, suggesting the effectiveness of suplatast in the treatment of CVA. "
|3.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
01/01/2005 - "Antibiotics are likely to be beneficial in the treatment of children with chronic moist cough. "
07/01/2013 - "Responders were more likely to believe antibiotics would be effective for a cough with green rather than clear phlegm. "
08/01/2012 - "Despite guideline recommendations, there are no published randomised controlled trial data on the efficacy of antibiotics for chronic wet cough in children. "
01/01/2014 - "The patient was treated with antibiotics, following which his cough improved and total leukocyte count normalised. "
07/01/2010 - "We did not detect any improvement in either England or Scotland, or any differences between England and Scotland in the understanding of the lack of benefit of antibiotics for coughs and colds, and we found no improvement in antibiotic use. "
|4.||Codeine (Codeine Phosphate)FDA LinkGeneric
02/10/2005 - "The results showed significant reduction of cough number obtained in the presence of both concentrations of aqueous and macerated extracts and codeine (p<0.001 for extracts and p<0.01 for codeine). "
11/04/2010 - "The effective cumulative dose for a 50% reduction in the number of coughs was 3.9 and 0.11 mg/kg after iv and icv administration of codeine, respectively; representing about 35-fold higher efficacy of the icv route. "
02/01/2007 - "The opioid codeine has been a mainstay in the treatment of cough for decades and this drug is widely regarded as the 'gold standard' cough suppressant. "
01/01/2008 - "Thus, the discovery of a novel and effective antitussive drug with an improved side effect profile relative to codeine would fulfill an unmet clinical need in the treatment of cough. "
10/01/1997 - "Firstly, to study the antitussive efficacy of codeine in cough associated with URTI and, secondly, to validate a sound meter as tool for quantifying cough. "
|5.||Dextromethorphan (Levomethorphan)FDA LinkGeneric
02/15/2007 - "Dextromethorphan may be beneficial in adults with cough, but its effectiveness has not been demonstrated in children and adolescents. "
10/01/2001 - "It demonstrated significantly greater overall reductions in cough bouts, cough components, and cough effort, and an increase in cough latency for patients treated with dextromethorphan hydrobromide, 30 mg, vs those treated with placebo. "
04/01/2006 - "The articles cited will review the efficacy of over-the-counter cough medicines, the emerging trend of abuse of certain preparations such as dextromethorphan, and specific cases of morbidity and even mortality. "
05/01/2008 - "Assessment of antitussive efficacy of dextromethorphan in smoking related cough: objective vs. subjective measures."
09/01/2004 - "The efficacy of dextromethorphan (DM) for treating acute cough is uncertain, and its use is not supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics. "
|6.||Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Corticosteroids)IBA
08/01/2011 - "Non-invasive methods of diagnosing EAI are potentially useful in guiding therapy, particularly in conditions such as chronic cough, for which corticosteroids may not be the first-line treatment. "
03/01/2010 - "In 90% of the patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids the cough was completely relieved while in 80% of the patients treated with only beta2 agonists the cough has remained unchanged. "
05/01/2005 - "Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is associated with a short-term improvement in cough and reduced sputum eosinophil count but the long-term outcome is uncertain. "
01/01/2005 - "To determine the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in non-specific cough in children over the age of two years. "
01/01/2013 - "The primary aim of the present study was to define the capability of hypertonic saline cough provocation test to predict the responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids in chronic cough. "
|7.||Antitussive Agents (Antitussives)IBA
06/01/2006 - "Like other over the counter antitussives, SO did not result in marked improvement in cough symptoms."
07/01/2001 - "This method offers many distinct advantages to evaluate efficacy of antitussive drugs including the fact that no surgery is required, it takes only 15-20 min to complete an experiment, and it can be used to simultaneously profile antitussive and side effect liabilities of drugs developed for the treatment of cough."
10/01/2012 - "Unfortunately, therapeutic options for acute cough in children are severely limited due to the absence of drugs shown to be effective antitussives with an acceptable safety profile. "
06/01/2008 - "[Lower airway nervous system as a putative target of antitussive drugs effective for treatment of chronic cough]."
09/01/1992 - "The device may be useful in the study into the efficacy of new antitussive drugs and the assessment of cough clearance. "
|8.||Budesonide (Pulmicort)FDA LinkGeneric
07/01/2009 - "We evaluated the efficacy of inhaled budesonide for decreased specific airway conductance (sGaw) as an indication of bronchial obstruction in very young children with recurrent cough and/or wheeze. "
01/01/2009 - "In the short term group (ICS for less then 6 months duration), adults on huge doses of ICS (2g per day of budesonide equivalent) had significantly improved forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), Quality of life (QOL) score and sputum volume but no significant difference in peak flow, exacerbations, cough or wheeze, when compared to adults in the control arm (no ICS). "
06/01/1997 - "We detected a significant improvement in the scores of the cough and nasal discharge at the end of second week in the budesonide group when compared with placebo (P < .05). "
09/01/1993 - "Cough scores improved significantly with budesonide: nocturnal and daytime cough scores (0-2) fell by a mean (SEM) of 0.4 (0.2) and 0.5 (0.2); while with placebo the nocturnal score increased by 0.1 (0.2) and daytime score was unchanged at 0.0 (0.2). "
11/01/1986 - "There was a small but statistically significant reduction in the daytime wheeze score while they were taking high dose budesonide but there was no difference for daytime activity, cough, and night symptoms. "
|9.||Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE Inhibitors)IBA
08/01/1992 - "Complete spontaneous remission of cough induced by ACE inhibitors during chronic therapy in hypertensive patients."
01/01/2014 - "Conversely, a high level of evidence indicated a slightly lower incidence of WDAE for ARBs as compared with ACE inhibitors (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.93; absolute risk reduction (ARR) 1.8%, number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 55 over 4.1 years), mainly attributable to a higher incidence of dry cough with ACE inhibitors. "
01/01/2004 - "In children, levocloperastine reduced nighttime awakenings and irritability, and in adults it was effective in treating cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. "
12/01/1994 - "Type 1 Ang II receptor antagonists represent a potential new treatment for hypertensive patients in whom ACE inhibitors are indicated, but who develop a cough with these agents."
05/01/1998 - "One clinical advantage of the AII receptor antagonists over ACE inhibitors is an improved side-effect profile with the absence of the persistent dry cough associated with ACE inhibitor therapy. "
|10.||Fentanyl (Sublimaze)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/1997 - "These findings suggest that the significant reduction in arterial pressures responses to tracheal extubation due to epidural fentanyl infusion may arise from more suppression of cough reflex than i.v. fentanyl infusion, which could be provided by the spinal action of epidural fentanyl as well as the supraspinal action."
10/01/2015 - "The vital sign profiles and frequency and intensity of cough were recorded within 2 min after fentanyl bolus by a nurse blinded to study design. "
01/01/2015 - "This study is to investigate the effects of prophylactic MgSO4 on the incidence and severity of fentanyl-induced cough. "
06/01/2014 - "Many studies demonstrated that the incidence and severity of fentanyl-induced cough could be related to age, ethnicity, history of smoking, as well as to the rate, route, dose and concentration of fentanyl administered. "
01/01/2014 - "Pre-emptive small dose of fentanyl suppresses fentanyl-induced cough: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials."
06/01/2006 - "Most of GER symptoms had improved except for cough after treatment with PPI. "
06/15/2011 - "At 4 and 5 days after treatment, the cough score of group B showed significant improvement compared with group A, demonstrating an early antitussive effect. "
06/15/2011 - "At the assessment 2 weeks after treatment start, both groups showed similar levels of improvement in the cough score. "
08/01/2012 - "In study B, the six CVA patients who underwent re-examination after treatment had less coughs at PC35 -PEF40 (median, 3/32 min; range, 0-14) and PC(20) -FEV1 (median, 13/32 min; range, 3-26) after therapy than before therapy (median, 54/32 min; range, 33-125 and 52/32 min, 45-96, respectively; P < 0.05). "
09/01/2015 - "The latter was defined as a decrease in cough questionnaire score greater than 50% after treatment compared with baseline values. "
|2.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
04/01/2012 - " To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". "
01/01/2014 - "The patient was successfully treated with chemotherapy, but his cough persists. "
01/01/2014 - "Analysis of these demonstrate clear superiority of afatinib over chemotherapy for delay in cough deterioration, and dyspnoea. "
01/01/2014 - "[Cough: differential diagnosis and rational pharmacotherapy]."
04/01/2013 - "Acute and chronic cough represent one of the most common symptoms of medical importance but effective pharmacotherapy is, to all intents and purposes, absent. "
01/01/2009 - "Fundoplication is highly effective in the control of reflux cough in CF. "
02/01/2011 - "The aim for this study is to examine whether proximal, as opposed to distal, oesophageal reflux predicts a good outcome after fundoplication in patients with suspected acid-induced chronic cough. "
01/01/2012 - "We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of patients from the Hull Cough Clinic who had undergone Nissen fundoplication over the past 6 years. "
01/01/2012 - "There is a paucity of data regarding response to fundoplication in patients presenting with chronic cough. "
01/01/2012 - "Fundoplication in chronic intractable cough."
07/01/2015 - "We aimed to compare systemic and cerebral hemodynamic variables and cough incidence in neurosurgery patients emerging from general anesthesia with the standard procedure (endotracheal tube [ETT] extubation) or after replacement of the ETT with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). "
02/01/2015 - "Opioid-induced cough during induction of general anesthesia is a common phenomenon. "
01/01/2009 - "The selective effects of general anesthesia on C-fiber-dependent cough and the opposing effects of C-fiber subtypes in cough have led to some uncertainty about their regulation of this defensive reflex. "
11/01/1998 - "Most patients cough as they awaken from general anesthesia given via an endotracheal tube. "
09/01/1959 - "[Cough in cats in various modes of general anesthesia and in wakeful states]."
|5.||Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
12/01/2015 - "Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been reported to be effective in alleviating cough. "
01/01/2010 - "Continuous positive airway pressure therapy is effective in alleviating cough. "
01/01/2014 - "Following the administration of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the cough symptoms rapidly improved in both cases. "
01/01/2007 - "The cough improved rapidly with nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure therapy. "
01/01/2013 - "The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of chronic cough between patients with and without OSA and the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in resolving chronic cough. "