Effective Priming of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells In Vivo Does Not Require Infected Dendritic Cells.

Resolution of virus infections depends on the priming of virus-specific CD8+ T cells by dendritic cells (DC). While this process requires major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted antigen presentation by DC, the relative contribution to CD8+ T cell priming by infected DC is less clear. We have addressed this question in the context of a peripheral infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV). Assessing the endogenous, polyclonal HSV-specific CD8+ T cell response, we found that effective in vivo T cell priming depended on the presence of DC subsets specialized in cross-presentation, while Langerhans cells and plasmacytoid DC were dispensable. Utilizing a novel mouse model that allows for the in vivo elimination of infected DC, we also demonstrated in vivo that this requirement for cross-presenting DC was not related to their infection but instead reflected their capacity to cross-present HSV-derived antigen. Taking the results together, this study shows that infected DC are not required for effective CD8+ T cell priming during a peripheral virus infection.IMPORTANCE The ability of some DC to present viral antigen to CD8+ T cells without being infected is thought to enable the host to induce killer T cells even when viruses evade or kill infected DC. However, direct experimental in vivo proof for this notion has remained elusive. The work described in this study characterizes the role that different DC play in the induction of virus-specific killer T cell responses and, critically, introduces a novel mouse model that allows for the selective elimination of infected DC in vivo Our finding that HSV-specific CD8+ T cells can be fully primed in the absence of DC infection shows that cross-presentation by DC is indeed sufficient for effective CD8+ T cell priming during a peripheral virus infection.
AuthorsPaul G Whitney, Christina Makhlouf, Beth MacLeod, Joel Z Ma, Elise Gressier, Marie Greyer, Katharina Hochheiser, Annabell Bachem, Ali Zaid, David Voehringer, William R Heath, Mayura V Wagle, Ian Parish, Tiffany A Russell, Stewart A Smith, David C Tscharke, Thomas Gebhardt, Sammy Bedoui
JournalJournal of virology (J Virol) Vol. 92 Issue 3 (02 01 2018) ISSN: 1098-5514 [Electronic] United States
PMID29142130 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
CopyrightCopyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.
Chemical References
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Antigens, Viral (immunology)
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes (cytology, immunology)
  • Cross-Priming
  • Dendritic Cells (cytology, immunology)
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Herpes Simplex (immunology)
  • Herpesvirus 1, Human
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL

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