|1.||Patent Foramen Ovale
|2.||Atrial Heart Septal Defects (Atrial Septal Defect)
|4.||Venous Thrombosis (Deep-Vein Thrombosis)
|1.||Rigatelli, Gianluca: 6 articles (12/2014 - 01/2003)|
|2.||Giordan, Massimo: 4 articles (12/2014 - 08/2008)|
|3.||Cardaioli, Paolo: 4 articles (12/2014 - 08/2008)|
|4.||Dell'avvocata, Fabio: 2 articles (12/2014 - 12/2008)|
|5.||Tsivgoulis, Georgios: 2 articles (07/2012 - 10/2008)|
|6.||Alexandrov, Andrei V: 2 articles (07/2012 - 10/2008)|
|7.||Dell'Avvocata, Fabio: 2 articles (04/2009 - 08/2008)|
|8.||Braggion, Gabriele: 2 articles (12/2008 - 08/2008)|
|9.||Chinaglia, Mauro: 2 articles (12/2008 - 08/2008)|
|10.||Meier, B: 2 articles (02/2004 - 12/2001)|
|1.||Warfarin (Coumadin)FDA LinkGeneric
07/01/2001 - "Available data suggest that warfarin is superior to antiplatelet therapy and comparable to surgical PFO closure for the prevention of recurrent cerebral ischemic events from paradoxical embolism."
01/01/2012 - "The patient was diagnosed as having acute cerebral infarction, probably due to paradoxical embolism, and was treated with warfarin. "
09/01/2007 - "Then, warfarin was selected as secondary prevention to reduce the risk of paradoxical embolism during thalidomide therapy. "
07/01/2009 - "If paradoxical embolism is suspected without proof of DVT, both drug therapy with aspirin or warfarin and percutaneous closure of the PFO are available as therapeutic options. "
12/01/2014 - "The purpose of our study is to report the clinical, hemodynamic, and anatomical features assessed by intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) of sASD as related to paradoxical embolism. "
12/01/2008 - "We sought to prospectively assess the frequency of EV/CN as assessed by intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) in patients submitted to patent foramen ovale (PFO) transcatheter closure in order to investigate their role in determining shunt severity and risk of multiple paradoxical embolisms. "
08/01/2008 - "We sought to assess, using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE), the right atrium anatomical-functional characteristics and their role in the pathophysiology of paradoxical embolism in a sample of patent foramen ovale (PFO) patients undergoing transcatheter PFO closure. "
06/01/1979 - "Paradoxical embolism associated with oral contraceptives: an underdiagnosed lesion?"
12/23/1967 - "[Crossed embolism while using oral contraceptives]."
06/01/1997 - "We describe a case of pulmonary embolism and ischemic stroke due to paradoxical embolism in a healthy young woman taking oral contraceptives to treat an ovarian cyst. "
03/01/2002 - "The treatment of paradoxical embolism must be individualized and consists above all in the use of anticoagulants. "
02/01/2000 - "Long-term prevention of paradoxical embolism with oral anticoagulants seems to be of questionable benefit. "
03/01/1989 - "A 69-year-old man with paradoxical embolism suffered a cerebral embolism despite treatment with anticoagulants and placement of a Greenfield filter. "
|5.||glucuronyl glucosamine glycan sulfate (Vessel)IBA
01/01/2014 - "Ischemic stroke occurs through several mechanisms, including large artery disease, small vessel disease, paradoxical embolism, endocarditis, vasculitis, and associated with anti-TNF-α therapy. "
03/15/1990 - "Complications occurred in 21 patients and included vessel rupture and death in 2 patients, vessel perforation or rupture with survival in 3, cardiac arrest and death in 1, paradoxical embolism and death in 1 and low output and death in 1. Balloon angioplasty for branch pulmonary artery stenosis increases vessel dimension at the site of stenosis, reduces systolic pressure gradient and to a minor degree, reduces proximal pressure. "
04/01/1994 - "The presumed cause of stroke was definite cardio-embolism in 4 patients (atrial fibrillation in 2, paradoxical embolism in 1, and left ventricular akinesia in 1); definite large-vessel atherosclerosis in 2; dissection of the internal carotid artery in 2; and definite small-vessel occlusion in 1. Seven patients had a negative diagnostic workup. "
|6.||Tissue Plasminogen Activator (Alteplase)FDA Link
|7.||Heparin (Liquaemin)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2007 - "The patient was started on therapy with unfractionated heparin, and his thrombus resolved spontaneously by hospital day 5. An impending paradoxical embolism is rare but should be suspected in anyone presenting with evidence of both venous and arterial emboli. "
03/01/2007 - "We report a case of large paradoxical embolisms through a patent foramen ovale in a patient with acquired heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II (HIT). "
|8.||factor V LeidenIBA
12/01/2002 - "The significance of the association of PFO with factor V Leiden mutation is discussed as a possible cause of ischemic stroke through paradoxical embolism from a venous source. "
04/01/2003 - "Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutation may predispose to paradoxical embolism in subjects with patent foramen ovale."
01/01/2012 - "To assess immediate and medium-term clinical outcomes of patients with PFO with paradoxical embolism event (EE) who underwent transcatheter PFO closure with an APFO or an ACSO. "
04/01/2011 - "Twenty patients undergoing percutaneous PFO closure using an FPO for secondary prevention of paradoxical embolism or diving were blindly matched with 20 patients receiving an APFO during the same time period. "
|10.||tranilast (N 5')IBA
09/01/1995 - "Patients were divided into three groups based on the type of shunt across the ASD: group I (n = 14)--left-to-right shunt; group II (n = 5)--presumed paradoxical embolism; and group III (n = 1)--right-to-left shunt. "
03/01/2015 - "EP-related interventions included transbaffle puncture for ablation of left-sided reentry circuits (n = 5), closure of previously undiagnosed baffle leaks prior to pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement to prevent paradoxical embolism (n = 3), superior baffle stenting to facilitate pacemaker/ICD lead placement (n = 2), and retrieval of retained transvenous pacemaker/ICD lead (n = 2). "
|1.||Septal Occluder Device
01/01/2013 - "Since paradoxical embolism via ASD was highly suspected and Qp/Qs was more than 1.5, transcatheter closure of ASD using AMPLATZER(®) Septal Occluder was performed. "
02/01/2004 - "To compare the safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with the Amplatzer PFO occluder (Amplatzer) or the PFO STAR device (STAR) in patients with presumed paradoxical embolism. "
01/01/2007 - "We report a case of young woman with pulmonary hypertension and PFO treated by implantation of Amplatzer occluder after paradoxical embolism."
01/01/2004 - "To review our experience with, and profile the safety and efficacy of, the Amplatzer PFO (patent foramen ovale) occluder (APO) and Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) used to close PFO and/or atrial septal defect (ASD) in patients with paradoxical embolism (PE). "
12/01/2010 - "Recurrent paradoxical embolism after catheter-based closure of right-to-left shunt (RLS) can be related to residual RLS. "
05/21/2004 - "[Interventional catheter closure of persistent foramen ovale (PFO) in a patient with paradoxical embolism and Brugada's syndrome]."
01/01/2003 - "Successful catheter-based closure using Amplatzer duct occluder device resulted in definitive exclusion of the source of paradoxical embolism."
04/01/2001 - "Since August 1994, we have attempted catheter closure of a PFO in 281 patients (age 17 to 79 years, mean 46.8 +/- 13.2) with paradoxical embolism. "
10/01/1998 - "Acute limb ischaemia due to paradoxical embolism from a long-term central venous catheter."
|3.||Vena Cava Filters (Inferior Vena Cava Filter)
04/01/2009 - "We present a case of multisite paradoxical embolism (pulmonary, cerebral, upper limb) mediated by a large right-to-left shunt mediated by a PFO with associated a redundant Eustachian valve, successfully treated with PFO transcatheter closure and vena cava filter placement."
08/01/2002 - "She underwent placement of inferior vena cava filter and was discharged from our hospital without any symptom of paradoxical embolism."
04/01/2000 - "The benefit of a inferior vena cava filter insertion in case of paradoxical embolism is discussed."
09/01/2002 - "Intracardiac migration of nitinol TrapEase vena cava filter and paradoxical embolism."
01/01/2014 - "Paradoxical embolism following intralesional sclerotherapy for cervical venous malformation."
06/01/2012 - "Paradoxical embolism, stroke and sclerotherapy."
02/01/2010 - "While acute neurological events immediately after sclerotherapy for varicose veins have been described repeatedly in the literature, this report is only the third case described worldwide of paradoxical embolism as a possible late complication of foam sclerotherapy for varicose veins."
05/28/2004 - "This case suggests a probable causal relationship between variceal sclerotherapy and paradoxical embolism resulting in a stroke. "
01/01/2003 - "Based on our results, we conclude that major right-to-left shunt was associated with an increased incidence of cochleovestibular and cerebral decompression illness, suggesting paradoxical embolism as a potential mechanism."
03/09/2011 - "Several pathologies have been related to PFO as paradoxical embolism, migraine with aura and decompression illness in divers. "
02/01/1997 - "During decompression, gaseous pulmonary embolism may increase right heart pressures and cause a paradoxical embolism may increase right heart pressures and cause a paradoxical embolism in patients with a right-to-left shunt. "
12/01/2001 - "Recently, the pathophysiological aspects of the PFO have been increasingly appreciated, giving rise to disease manifestations such as paradoxical embolism, refractory hypoxemia in patients with right ventricular infarction or severe pulmonary disease, orthostatic desaturation in the setting of the rare platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, neurological decompression illness in divers, and migraine headache with aura. "