|1.||Pathologic Constriction (Stenosis)
|3.||Graves Disease (Basedow Disease)
|4.||Fetal Diseases (Embryopathy)
|1.||van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A: 2 articles (11/2014 - 03/2011)|
|2.||Kubba, Haytham: 2 articles (09/2014 - 07/2004)|
|3.||Castanet, Mireille: 2 articles (04/2014 - 08/2010)|
|4.||Lupo, Philip J: 2 articles (03/2013 - 11/2012)|
|5.||Canfield, Mark A: 2 articles (03/2013 - 11/2012)|
|6.||Di Gianantonio, Elena: 2 articles (08/2012 - 11/2010)|
|7.||Clementi, Maurizio: 2 articles (08/2012 - 11/2010)|
|8.||Cassina, Matteo: 2 articles (08/2012 - 11/2010)|
|9.||Hoefsloot, Lies H: 2 articles (03/2011 - 05/2009)|
|10.||Al-Ammar, Ahmed Y: 2 articles (03/2008 - 10/2007)|
|1.||Mitomycin (Mitomycin-C)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/2014 - "To determine the efficacy of topical mitomycin and stenting in patients that have undergone endoscopic repair of choanal atresia. "
02/01/2014 - "The efficacy of mitomycin and stenting in choanal atresia repair: a 20 year experience."
07/01/2010 - "To evaluate the efficacy of topical mitomycin in providing the patency of the neochoanae in children undergoing transnasal endoscopic congenital choanal atresia (CA) repair. "
04/01/2002 - "The use of mitomycin as an adjunct to the surgical repair of choanal atresia may offer improved patency with a decreased need for stenting, dilatations, and revision surgery. "
11/01/2001 - "Surgical management of choanal atresia: improved outcome using mitomycin."
|2.||Methimazole (Thiamazole)FDA LinkGeneric
09/15/2008 - "Several case reports have suggested a relationship between the prenatal use of methimazole (MMI) and choanal atresia in the offspring. "
08/15/2004 - "Choanal atresia associated with prenatal methimazole exposure: three new patients."
05/01/2003 - "[Methimazole and choanal atresia]."
01/13/1998 - "Choanal atresia and hypothelia following methimazole exposure in utero: a second report."
09/15/2008 - "Choanal atresia associated with maternal hyperthyroidism treated with methimazole: a case-control study."
|3.||Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)FDA Link
08/01/2009 - "The Authors describe a new dynamic endonasal Teflon stent, nick-named "little gun", used after the surgical transnasal endoscopic treatment of bilateral choanal atresia in a 4-day-old male. "
06/01/2001 - "To describe improved surgical treatment for posterior choanal atresia (PCA) by creating mucosal flaps with the aid of operating microscope, CO(2) laser, self-retaining nasal retractor, and stenting with a flat polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) keel. "
05/01/2011 - "This study was designed to investigate the role of endoscopic surgery for acquired choanal atresia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. "
05/01/2011 - "Endoscopic surgery for acquired choanal atresia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma."
02/01/2007 - "Five patients with acquired bilateral choanal atresia and two with unilateral choanal atresia in the posterior choanae were identified following treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by external radiotherapy, from July 1998 to April 1999. "
07/01/2001 - "Four patients with acquired bilateral choanal atresia and 2 with severe unilateral choanal stenosis in the posterior choanae were identified after treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy. "
02/01/2007 - "To report on the use of holmium yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) laser in the treatment of acquired posterior choanal atresia following radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. "
|6.||Single upper central incisorIBA
12/01/1997 - "The spectrum of anomalies and associated features present in these cases--solitary median maxillary central incisor, choanal atresia, and holoprosencephaly--is described, and the literature related to the features, including genetic studies in these conditions, is reviewed. "
08/01/2010 - "We present the first reported case of simultaneous choanal atresia and pyriform aperture stenosis in a neonate with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome. "
08/01/2010 - "A case of solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome with bilateral pyriform aperture stenosis and choanal atresia."
12/01/1997 - "Solitary median maxillary central incisor, short stature, choanal atresia/midnasal stenosis (SMMCI) syndrome."
|7.||Thalidomide (Thalomid)FDA Link
01/01/2004 - "To review the association of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in individuals manifesting thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence and compare them with three new studies in which ASD was also associated with ocular and systemic malformations: (1) a Swedish study of individuals with CHARGE association (Coloboma, Heart, choanal Atresia, developmental or growth Retardation, Genital anomaly, and Ear involvement); (2) a Swedish study of Goldenhar syndrome; and (3) Brazilian Möbius syndrome (sequence) study. "
|8.||Technetium (Technetium 99m)IBA
09/01/2008 - "We report another such instance of an infant who was exposed to carbimazole in utero, presenting with bilateral choanal atresia and patent vitello-intestinal duct. "
08/01/2005 - "Choanal atresia - a recurrent feature of foetal carbimazole syndrome."
07/22/2002 - "We present the fourth published case of a child affected with choanal atresia following maternal treatment with carbimazole. "
01/01/2014 - "Carbimazole embryopathy and choanal atresia."
09/01/2008 - "In utero exposure to carbimazole for maternal hyperthyroidism has been reported to cause choanal atresia. "
|10.||Absent breasts and nipplesIBA
06/01/2007 - "Report of a fourth individual with a lethal syndrome of choanal atresia, athelia, evidence of renal tubulopathy, and family history of neck cysts."
01/01/2006 - "A case of congenital jejunal atresia associated with bilateral athelia and choanal atresia: new syndrome spectrum."
09/01/2011 - "Choanal atresia, esophageal atresia, athelia or hypothelia, developmental delay, hearing loss, and dysmorphic facial features have all been reported. "
01/15/2005 - "Choanal atresia, gastrointestinal anomalies-particularly esophageal atresia, athelia/hypothelia, developmental delay, hearing loss, and dysmorphic facial features have all been reported. "
03/01/2011 - "Malformations reported in exposed individuals and commonly recognized as MMI/CMZ embryopathy include cutis aplasia of the scalp, choanal atresia, esophageal atresia (EA), tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF), persistent vitelline duct, athelia/hypothelia, and subtle facial dysmorphisms including sparse or arched eyebrows. "
10/01/1990 - "An improved stent method for choanal atresia repair."
02/01/1988 - "An improved stent for use in the surgical management of congenital posterior choanal atresia."
01/01/2013 - "Objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using stents after endoscopic repair of bilateral posterior choanal atresia. "
08/01/2002 - "With this in mind, in a non-randomized trial, a modification of the transnasal surgical repair was used in eight patients with unilateral choanal atresia by which no stents were used. "
01/01/2013 - "The use of stents after endoscopic repair of congenital bilateral posterior choanal atresia does not seem to decrease the incidence of re-closure and restenosis of the posterior choana. "
05/01/2011 - "Acquired posterior choanal atresia after radiotherapy can be successfully treated with transnasal endoscopic resection assisted by a powered instrument without stenting."
03/01/2006 - "A case of acquired posterior choanal atresia post radiotherapy is reported which was treated by endonasal endoscopic repair using microdebrider with untoward effect."
02/01/2007 - "Acquired posterior choanal atresia is an unusual complication following radiotherapy, and it can occur early after treatment. "
03/01/2004 - "Twenty-one cases of choanal atresia after radiotherapy were treated by microwave under nasal endoscope. "
03/01/2004 - "In order to observe the long-term curative effect of microwave to treat the choanal atresia after radiotherapy under nasal endoscope. "
01/01/1994 - "Laser beam in treating congenital choanal atresia in three patients."
01/01/1987 - "Pitfalls to laser correction of choanal atresia."
09/01/1986 - "Laser-treatment of choanal atresia seems to make other methods of operation obsolete for the following reasons: The operation is easy and quick and of slight discomfort to the patient. "
11/01/2000 - "A 16-year-old female patient with recurrent stenosis after unilateral choanal atresia that had been treated by surgery and laser therapy presented with restenosis 3 weeks after laser resection. "
04/01/1984 - "Bilateral choanal atresia requires immediate trepanation by using the CO2 or Argon laser technique. "
06/01/1990 - "The conclusion derived from this study is that curettage of bony atresia, stenting with soft Portex tube for a period of six weeks and the use of broad spectrum antibiotic for the entire stenting period eliminates the problem of stenosis associated with the trans-nasal approach for the correction of bilateral choanal atresia."
04/01/2001 - "Transnasal treatment of congenital choanal atresia with the KTP laser."
04/01/2001 - "This paper, describes the endoscopic repair of unilateral choanal atresia with the KTP laser, a one-stage procedure, with no requirement for stenting. "
04/01/2001 - "Endoscopic repair of unilateral choanal atresia with the KTP laser: a one stage procedure."
12/01/2000 - "Twins born prematurely presented with choanal atresia and were successfully treated using a transnasal, endoscopically and microscopically controlled Ho:YAG-Laser assisted technique. "
12/01/2000 - "Choanal atresia in premature dizygotic twins--a transnasal approach with Holmium:YAG-laser."