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Chlorine

A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Networked: 693 relevant articles (15 outcomes, 67 trials/studies)

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Bio-Agent Context: Research Results

Experts

1. Matalon, Sadis: 14 articles (08/2015 - 11/2008)
2. Doran, Stephen F: 9 articles (08/2015 - 07/2010)
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): 8 articles (04/2015 - 05/2001)
4. Hoyle, Gary W: 8 articles (01/2015 - 07/2008)
5. Chen, Jing: 7 articles (01/2015 - 07/2008)
6. Squadrito, Giuseppe L: 7 articles (12/2012 - 11/2008)
7. Postlethwait, Edward M: 6 articles (12/2012 - 07/2010)
8. Yu, Zhihong: 4 articles (08/2015 - 07/2011)
9. Schlueter, Connie F: 4 articles (10/2013 - 12/2010)
10. Bracher, Andreas: 4 articles (12/2012 - 11/2008)

Related Diseases

1. Cysts
01/16/2014 - "Most laboratories use approximately 25 to 50 ppm unbuffered chlorine solution for 5 to 10 min. Treatment of embryos with chlorine has significant germicidal effects for many Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and trophozoite stages of protozoa, but is less effective against cyst or spore stages of protozoa and certain Mycobacterium spp. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of unbuffered and buffered chlorine solutions to embryos exposed at 6 or 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) to determine whether higher concentrations can be used for treating zebrafish embryos. "
09/01/2003 - "Current guidance covers inactivation levels in the pH range between 6 and 9. Subsequent to the publication of these criteria, studies on the inactivation kinetics of Giardia cysts by chlorine have been performed at pH levels greater than 9. It has been shown that the chlorine inactivation process for Giardia cysts is pH dependent. "
10/01/1985 - "In this study, in vitro excystation and mouse infectivity were compared as methods for quantitatively determining the viability of Giardia muris cysts before and after exposure to free residual chlorine. "
02/01/1981 - "At this temperature, 2 mg of chlorine per liter killed all cysts after 60 min at pH 6 and 7, but not at pH 8. A chlorine concentration of 4 mg/liter killed all the cysts at all three pH values after 60 min, but not after 30 min. A chlorine concentration of 8 mg/liter killed all Giardia cysts at pH 6 and 7 after contact for 10 min, and at pH 8 after 30 min. This study points up the role of temperature, pH, and chlorine demand in the halogen treatment of drinking water to destroy cysts. "
06/01/2014 - "The cysts are chlorine-resistant and, therefore, can pollute drinking water and induce a pandemic disease. "
2. Lung Injury
3. Infection
4. Anoxia (Hypoxia)
5. Seizures (Seizure)

Related Drugs and Biologics

1. Creatinine
2. Sodium
3. Potassium
4. Insulin (Novolin)
5. Reamberin
6. Budesonide (Pulmicort)
7. Subtilisin
8. Doxazosin (Cardura)
9. Terbutaline (Brethaire)
10. Furosemide (Lasix)

Related Therapies and Procedures

1. Photochemotherapy (Photodynamic Therapy)
2. Lasers (Laser)
3. Electrodes (Electrode)
4. Root Planing
5. Therapeutics