Immune responses of mice and human breast cancer patients following immunization with synthetic sialyl-Tn conjugated to KLH plus detox adjuvant.

We generated a synthetic epitope, NANA alpha(2-6) GalNAc alpha-O-Crotyl (STn-crotyl), designed to "mimic" the natural O-linked epitope expressed on human carcinoma cells, NANA alpha(2-6)GalNAc alpha-O-Serine (STn-serine). STn-crotyl was conjugated to the carrier protein KLH through the crotyl linker arm, and a "vaccine" containing STn-KLH plus DETOX adjuvant was formulated. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated preclinically in CAF1 mice and subsequently in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The specificity and titers of IgG antibodies were evaluated by kinetic ELISA on synthetic STn-HSA and on ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM) solid phases. Ovine submaxillary mucin is a convenient source of repeating, natural O-linked STn-serine structures. Mice immunized three times with as little as 0.25 micrograms of STn-KLH produced IgG titers ranging from 1:10(4) to 1:10(5) when tested on solid phase OSM. Anti-OSM IgG, both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, generated from these mice were completely inhibited in their binding to solid phase OSM equally well by STn-serine and STn-crotyl synthetic haptens but not by several other closely related synthetic haptens. These monoclonal antibodies also bound to STn determinants on human tumor cell surfaces. Breast cancer patients immunized with 100 micrograms of the same vaccine produced median peak IgG titers 1:1280 measured on STn-HSA and 1:160 on OSM. Hapten inhibition experiments with the human sera demonstrated the specificities of the IgG antibodies for STn-crotyl and STn-serine, but not against several other related synthetic haptens. We found little evidence that the artificial linker arm (crotyl linker) contributed substantially to either the titer or affinity of the antibodies generated in either mice or human breast cancer patients. This suggests that the antibodies recognized the cancer-associated disaccharide NANA alpha(2-->6)-GalNAc. Small but not large doses of STn-KLH immunogen induced anti-STn DTH responses in mice that were inversely proportional to the antibody responses. Evidence of a clinical response was noted in some of the immunized breast cancer patients, with other patients showing prolonged disease stability.
AuthorsB M Longenecker, M Reddish, R Koganty, G D MacLean
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Ann N Y Acad Sci) Vol. 690 Pg. 276-91 (Aug 12 1993) ISSN: 0077-8923 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID7690215 (Publication Type: Clinical Trial, Clinical Trial, Phase I, Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Neoplasm
  • Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
  • Epitopes
  • Mucins
  • sialosyl-Tn antigen
  • Complement System Proteins
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal (immunology)
  • Antibodies, Neoplasm (immunology)
  • Antibody Specificity
  • Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate (immunology)
  • Breast Neoplasms (therapy)
  • Carbohydrate Sequence
  • Complement System Proteins (immunology)
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • Epitopes
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity, Delayed (immunology)
  • Immunotherapy, Active
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mucins (immunology)
  • Sheep
  • Submandibular Gland (immunology)

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