Miscellaneous and experimental agents.

Current therapeutic approaches to postmenopausal bone loss or established osteoporosis vary widely among the different regions of the world. Because no treatment of osteoporosis has unequivocally demonstrated full prevention of the appearance or the recurrence of axial or peripheral fractures so far, many investigational compounds are being developed. Anabolic steroids act mainly as inhibitors of bone resorption with very few, if any, effects on bone formation. Because of the high occurrence of signs of virilization and the weak effects on bone structure, the risk/benefit ratio in osteoporosis should be considered at least problematic. If ongoing large-scale trials confirm the expected benefits of estrogen antagonist/agonists on the skeleton and confirm no cardiovascular risk to postmenopausal women with optimal uterine safety, these substances are likely to become the most prominent alternative to hormonal replacement therapy after the menopause. Additional studies are requested to evaluate the potential benefit of growth hormone or insulin-like growth factors in treatment of osteoporosis. Ipriflavone acts predominantly as an inhibitor of bone resorption. To confirm the efficacy of ipriflavone on the prevention of vertebral fractures and its effects on bone mineral density in women with postmenopausal established osteoporosis, a large multicentric European study is being conducted. Treatment with parathyroid peptides induces a significant gain in bone mass, mainly in the axial skeleton. Long-term studies that compare peptides, doses, and regimes are needed to better understand the exact position of parathyroid peptides as treatment of osteoporosis. Prolonged administration of strontium to postmenopausal osteoporotic women resulted in a decoupling between bone resorption and formation that yielded a significant increase in the lumbar spine bone mineral density of treated subjects. In the view of these promising results and of the excellent tolerance of strontium during preliminary trials, additional investigations of this compound in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis should be promptly initiated. Several other compounds have been punctually suggested for treatment of osteoporosis or are at very early stages of development. Finally, besides pharmacologic approaches to the treatment of osteoporosis, hip fractures may also be reduced by the use of hip protectors.
AuthorsJ Y Reginster
JournalThe American journal of the medical sciences (Am J Med Sci) Vol. 313 Issue 1 Pg. 33-40 (Jan 1997) ISSN: 0002-9629 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID9001164 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Anabolic Agents
  • Estrogen Antagonists
  • Estrogens
  • Insulin
  • Isoflavones
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Trace Elements
  • Tamoxifen
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • ipriflavone
  • Strontium
  • Anabolic Agents (adverse effects, therapeutic use)
  • Animals
  • Bone Density (drug effects)
  • Bone Remodeling
  • Bone Resorption
  • Estrogen Antagonists (adverse effects, therapeutic use)
  • Estrogens (adverse effects, therapeutic use)
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures (prevention & control)
  • Humans
  • Insulin (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (pharmacology, therapeutic use)
  • Isoflavones (therapeutic use)
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal (drug therapy, prevention & control)
  • Parathyroid Hormone (therapeutic use)
  • Strontium (therapeutic use)
  • Tamoxifen (adverse effects, therapeutic use)
  • Trace Elements (therapeutic use)

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