Transnasal microsurgery in children and adolescents with Cushing's disease.

Transnasal adenomectomy is the treatment of choice for Cushing's disease. We review the diagnostic peculiarities, specific surgical problems, and outcome of children and adolescents with Cushing's disease.
We report on our series of 55 consecutive children and adolescents (range, 4.2-18.9 yr [mean age, 14.4 yr]; female:male = 1.1:1.0; mean follow-up, 54.5 +/- 38.6 mo [standard deviation]) with Cushing's disease on whom we performed surgery since 1980. The indication for transsphenoidal surgery is based on endocrinological parameters and not on neuroradiological findings.
Detection rate of the tumor site was 22% using computed tomography and 33% using magnetic resonance imaging. Only 7 of 13 interpetrosal adrenocorticotropic hormone gradients obtained during inferior petrosal sinus sampling correctly lateralized the tumor site preoperatively (53.8%). In cases of incomplete sphenoid pneumatization, adequate exposure is achieved by drilling. The tumor finding rate is 98%. The remission rate is 100% when two early subsequent operations are included. The recurrence rate for 45 primary operations with follow-up of at least 1 year is 15.5%. Seven of nine subsequent operations for recurrent hypercortisolism were successful. One patient needed three more operations until hypercortisolism subsided; one patient achieved remission after additional pituitary irradiation. The surgical morbidity was low in this series, which consisted of two cerebrospinal fluid fistulas. The incidence of hypopituitarism after primary operations (10.3%) is significantly lower than after subsequent operations (45.5%).
Direct transnasal submucosal surgery for Cushing's disease is successful, and pituitary function can be preserved in most of these young patients.
AuthorsU J Knappe, D K Lüdecke
JournalNeurosurgery (Neurosurgery) Vol. 39 Issue 3 Pg. 484-92; discussion 492-3 (Sep 1996) ISSN: 0148-396X [Print] United States
PMID8875478 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Adenoma (diagnosis, surgery)
  • Adolescent
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (blood)
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Craniotomy (instrumentation)
  • Cushing Syndrome (diagnosis, surgery)
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone (blood)
  • Hypophysectomy (instrumentation)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local (diagnosis, surgery)
  • Pituitary Function Tests
  • Pituitary Neoplasms (diagnosis, surgery)
  • Postoperative Complications (diagnosis)
  • Reoperation
  • Sphenoid Bone (surgery)
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome

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