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Clonidine, but not morphine, delays the development of thermal hyperesthesia induced by sciatic nerve constriction injury in the rat.

AbstractBACKGROUND:
It has been shown that the spinal facilitation induced by the injury discharge evoked by a nerve constriction injury is crucial in the development of thermal hyperesthesia. Both opioids and alpha 2 agonists have been reported to prevent the development of spinal facilitation evoked by the small afferent input to the spinal cord. Moreover, it has been reported that the thermal hyperesthesia induced by a nerve constriction injury is sympathetically maintained and that spinally administered alpha 2 agonists can modulate the sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord. The current study investigated the effect of spinally administered morphine and clonidine, an alpha 2 agonist, on the development of thermal hyperesthesia induced by nerve constriction injury in the rat.
METHODS:
A model of thermal hyperesthesia induced by a constriction injury created by making four loose ligatures around the rat sciatic nerve was used to examine the development of thermal hyperesthesia. Morphine, clonidine, and idazoxan were administered intrathecally or intraperitoneally 20 min before (pretreatment study) or 20 min after (posttreatment study) the nerve injury.
RESULTS:
Pretreatment, but not posttreatment, with intrathecal clonidine significantly delayed the development of thermal hyperesthesia in a dose-dependent manner, and this delay in onset produced by clonidine was 3 days after the nerve injury. This effect of clonidine's was completely antagonized by the coadministration of idazoxan with clonidine. Intrathecal morphine had no effect on the development of thermal hyperesthesia in this study.
CONCLUSIONS:
Spinal alpha 2 receptors, but not opioid receptors, may play an important role in the development of thermal hyperesthesia induced by a nerve constriction injury. This suggested that the activation of spinal alpha 2 receptor may reduce the sympathetic outflow and this reduction of sympathetic outflow may be the key mechanism that delays the development of thermal hyperesthesia.
AuthorsT Yamamoto, N Nozaki-Taguchi
JournalAnesthesiology (Anesthesiology) Vol. 85 Issue 4 Pg. 835-45 (Oct 1996) ISSN: 0003-3022 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID8873554 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists
  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists
  • Narcotics
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2
  • Receptors, Opioid
  • Morphine
  • Clonidine
  • Idazoxan
Topics
  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Animals
  • Clonidine (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hyperesthesia (etiology, physiopathology, prevention & control)
  • Idazoxan (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Ligation
  • Male
  • Morphine (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Narcotics (administration & dosage, pharmacology)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2 (drug effects, physiology)
  • Receptors, Opioid (drug effects, physiology)
  • Sciatic Nerve (drug effects, injuries, physiopathology)
  • Spinal Cord (drug effects, physiopathology)
  • Sympathetic Nervous System (drug effects, physiopathology)
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors

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