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Haematological disorders associated with feline retrovirus infections.

Abstract
Feline oncornavirus and lentivirus infections have provided useful models to characterize the virus and host cell factors involved in a variety of marrow suppressive disorders and haematological malignancies. Exciting recent progress has been made in the characterization of the viral genotypic features involved in FeLV-associated diseases. Molecular studies have clearly defined the causal role of variant FeLV env gene determinants in two disorders: the T-lymphocyte cytopathicity and the clinical acute immunosuppression induced by the FeLV-FAIDS variant and the pure red cell aplasia induced by FeLV-C/Sarma. Variant or enFeLV env sequences also appear to play a role in FeLV-associated lymphomas. Additional studies are required to determine the host cell processes that are perturbed by these variant env gene products. In the case of the FeLV-FAIDS variant, the aberrant env gene products appear to impair superinfection interference, resulting in accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA and cell death. In other cases it is likely that the viral env proteins interact with host products that are important in cell viability and/or proliferation. Understanding of these mechanisms will therefore provide insights to factors involved in normal lymphohaematopoiesis. Similarly, studies of FeLV-induced haematological neoplasms should reveal recombination or rearrangement events involving as yet unidentified host gene sequences that encode products involved in normal cell growth regulation. These sequences may include novel protoncogenes or sequences homologous to genes implicated in human haematological malignancies. The haematological consequences of FIV are quite similar to those associated with HIV. As with HIV, FIV does not appear to directly infect myeloid or erythroid precursors, and the mechanisms of marrow suppression likely involve virus, viral antigen, and/or infected accessory cells in the marrow microenvironment. Studies using in vitro experimental models are required to define the effects of each of these microenvironmental elements on haematopoietic progenitors. As little is known about the molecular mechanisms of FIV pathogenesis, additional studies of disease-inducing FIV strains are needed to identify the genotypic features that correlate with virulent phenotypic features. Finally, experimental FIV infection in cats provides the opportunity to correlate in vivo virological and haematological changes with in vitro observations in a large animal model that closely mimics HIV infection in man.
AuthorsM L Linenberger, J L Abkowitz
JournalBailliè€re's clinical haematology (Baillieres Clin Haematol) Vol. 8 Issue 1 Pg. 73-112 (Mar 1995) ISSN: 0950-3536 [Print] ENGLAND
PMID7663052 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S., Review)
Chemical References
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Retroviridae Proteins
Topics
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral (biosynthesis, immunology)
  • Bone Marrow (pathology, virology)
  • Cats (virology)
  • Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (immunology, transmission)
  • Genes, Viral
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline (genetics, immunology, physiology)
  • Leukemia Virus, Feline (classification, genetics, immunology, physiology)
  • Leukemia, Feline (immunology, transmission)
  • Lymphoma (epidemiology, veterinary, virology)
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (veterinary, virology)
  • Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure (veterinary, virology)
  • Retroviridae (classification)
  • Retroviridae Proteins (genetics, physiology)
  • Spumavirus (pathogenicity)

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