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Acetylsalicylic acid challenge or desensitization in sensitive patients with cardiovascular disease.

Abstract
The use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is problematic in subjects with histories of hypersensitivity reactions (HRs) to it or with cross-reactive types of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose ASA challenge (LDAC) and desensitization to allow ASA therapy at an antiplatelet dose in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or multiple related risk factors and histories of HRs to ASA or ≥ 2 chemically unrelated NSAIDs. We studied prospectively all patients with such histories and ≥ 3 risk factors for ASCVD (group I), chronic coronary syndrome (CCS, group II), and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with indication for ASA desensitization (group III). Patients from groups I and II underwent LDACs (cumulative dose of 110 mg), while those from group III were desensitized (cumulative dose of 100.1 mg). We evaluated 103 patients: 62 from group I, 24 from group II, and 17 from group III. Eighty-two of the 86 patients from the first two groups underwent LDACs and 2 reacted. Subsequently, 22 (27.5%) of the 80 patients with negative LDACs were administered dual antiplatelet therapy with ASA after successful percutaneous coronary interventions, thus sparing desensitizations. The remaining 4 patients with CCS and all 17 patients from group III were successfully desensitized. In this pragmatic study, LDAC proved to be a safe and reliable diagnostic tool for identifying patients with histories of HRs to ASA or ≥ 2 different NSAIDs who can tolerate ASA at antiplatelet doses. Routine LDAC is advisable in all patients at high risk for ASCVD or with CCS who report HRs to ASA or ≥ 2 NSAIDs. ASA desensitization remains a safe and effective option in patients with ACS. Study flow-chart. ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; CCS chronic coronary syndrome; ACS acute coronary syndrome; ASA acetylsalicylic acid; DAPT dual antiplatelet therapy; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; NERD NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease; NECD NSAID-exacerbated cutaneous disease; NIUAA NSAID-induced urticaria-angioedema or anaphylaxis; SNIUAA single NSAID-induced urticaria-angioedema or anaphylaxis; SNIDHR single NSAID-induced delayed hypersensitivity reaction.
AuthorsGabriele Cortellini, Alberto Raiteri, Mattia Galli, Marzia Lotrionte, Fabio Piscaglia, Antonino Romano
JournalJournal of thrombosis and thrombolysis (J Thromb Thrombolysis) Vol. 55 Issue 4 Pg. 762-769 (May 2023) ISSN: 1573-742X [Electronic] Netherlands
PMID36757645 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Copyright© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
Chemical References
  • Aspirin
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Topics
  • Humans
  • Aspirin (adverse effects)
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors (adverse effects)
  • Cardiovascular Diseases (drug therapy)
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome (drug therapy)
  • Anaphylaxis (chemically induced)
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  • Drug Hypersensitivity (therapy, drug therapy)
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal (adverse effects)
  • Angioedema (chemically induced, drug therapy)
  • Atherosclerosis (drug therapy)

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