Developing and applying a costing tool for hypertension and related cardiovascular disease: Attributable costs to salt/sodium consumption.

This paper proposes a costing tool for hypertension and cardiovascular disease by adapting cost-of-illness methodologies to estimate the attributable burden of excessive salt intake on cardiovascular disease. The methodology estimates the changes in blood pressure that result from each gram change in salt intake and links diet to the direct and indirect costs of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertensive disease, aortic aneurysm, heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and rheumatic heart, using the relative risks of disease and the prevalence of salt consumption in the population. The methodology includes (a) identifying major diseases and conditions related to excessive salt intake and relevant economic cost data available, (b) quantifying the relationship between the prevalence of excessive salt intake and the associated risk of disease morbidity and mortality using population attributable risks (PAR), (c) using PARs to estimate the share of total costs directly attributed to excessive salt intake, and (d) undertaking a sensitivity analysis of key epidemiological and economic parameters. The costing tool has estimated that, in 2013, US$ 102.0 million (95% uncertainty interval-UI: US$ 96.2-107.8 million) in public hospitalizations could be saved if the average salt intake of Brazilians were reduced to 5 g/d, corresponding to 9.4% (95% UI: 8.9%-9.9%) of the total hospital costs by CVDs. This methodology of cost of illness associated with salt consumption can be adapted to estimate the burden of other dietary risk factors and support prevention and control policies in Brazil and in other countries.
AuthorsEduardo Augusto Fernandes Nilson, Everton N da Silva, Patrícia C Jaime
JournalJournal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) (J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)) Vol. 22 Issue 4 Pg. 642-648 (04 2020) ISSN: 1751-7176 [Electronic] United States
PMID32108425 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Copyright© 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chemical References
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Sodium
  • Brazil
  • Cardiovascular Diseases (epidemiology)
  • Humans
  • Hypertension (epidemiology)
  • Sodium
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary (adverse effects)

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