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Association of code status discussion with invasive procedures among advanced-stage cancer and noncancer patients.

AbstractBACKGROUND:
Code status discussion is associated with a decrease in invasive procedures among terminally ill cancer patients. We investigated the association between code status discussion on admission and incidence of invasive procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and opioid use among inpatients with advanced stages of cancer and noncancer diseases.
METHODS:
We performed a retrospective cohort study in a single center, Ito Municipal Hospital, Japan. Participants were patients who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine between October 1, 2013 and August 30, 2015, with advanced-stage cancer and noncancer. We collected demographic data and inquired the presence or absence of code status discussion within 24 hours of admission and whether invasive procedures, including central venous catheter placement, intubation with mechanical ventilation, and CPR for cardiac arrest, and opioid treatment were performed. We investigated the factors associated with CPR events by using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS:
Among the total 232 patients, code status was discussed with 115 patients on admission, of which 114 (99.1%) patients had do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders. The code status was not discussed with the remaining 117 patients on admission, of which 69 (59%) patients had subsequent code status discussion with resultant DNR orders. Code status discussion on admission decreased the incidence of central venous catheter placement, intubation with mechanical ventilation, and CPR in both cancer and noncancer patients. It tended to increase the rate of opioid use. Code status discussion on admission was the only factor associated with the decreased use of CPR (P<0.001, odds ratio =0.03, 95% CI =0.004-0.21), which was found by using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
CONCLUSION:
Code status discussion on admission is associated with a decrease in invasive procedures and CPR in cancer and noncancer patients. Physicians should be educated about code status discussion to improve end-of-life care.
AuthorsAkinori Sasaki, Eiji Hiraoka, Yosuke Homma, Osamu Takahashi, Yasuhiro Norisue, Koji Kawai, Shigeki Fujitani
JournalInternational journal of general medicine (Int J Gen Med) Vol. 10 Pg. 207-214 ( 2017) ISSN: 1178-7074 [Print] New Zealand
PMID28769583 (Publication Type: Journal Article)

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