Long-term effect of PROLI/NO on cellular proliferation and phenotype after arterial injury.

Vascular interventions are associated with high failure rates from restenosis secondary to negative remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. Periadventitial delivery of nitric oxide (NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, preserving lumen patency. With the development of new localized delivery vehicles, NO-based therapies remain a promising therapeutic avenue for the prevention of restenosis. While the time course of events during neointimal development has been well established, a full characterization of the impact of NO donors on the cells that comprise the arterial wall has not been performed. Thus, the aim of our study was to perform a detailed assessment of proliferation, cellularity, inflammation, and phenotypic cellular modulation in injured arteries treated with the short-lived NO donor, PROLI/NO. PROLI/NO provided durable inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia for 6 months after arterial injury. PROLI/NO inhibited proliferation and cellularity in the media and intima at all of the time points studied. However, PROLI/NO caused an increase in adventitial proliferation at 2 weeks, resulting in increased cellularity at 2 and 8 weeks compared to injury alone. PROLI/NO promoted local protein S-nitrosation and increased local tyrosine nitration, without measurable systemic effects. PROLI/NO predominantly inhibited contractile smooth muscle cells in the intima and media, and had little to no effect on vascular smooth muscle cells or myofibroblasts in the adventitia. Finally, PROLI/NO caused a delayed and decreased leukocyte infiltration response after injury. Our results show that a short-lived NO donor exerts durable effects on proliferation, phenotype modulation, and inflammation that result in long-term inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia.
AuthorsEdward S M Bahnson, Ashley K Vavra, Megan E Flynn, Janet M Vercammen, Qun Jiang, Amanda R Schwartz, Melina R Kibbe
JournalFree radical biology & medicine (Free Radic Biol Med) Vol. 90 Pg. 272-86 (Jan 2016) ISSN: 1873-4596 [Electronic] United States
PMID26627935 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.)
CopyrightPublished by Elsevier Inc.
Chemical References
  • Actins
  • Nitric Oxide Donors
  • proline-nitric oxide
  • smooth muscle actin, rat
  • Proline
  • Actins (analysis)
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis (drug effects)
  • Arteries (injuries)
  • Carotid Artery Injuries (pathology)
  • Cell Proliferation (drug effects)
  • Hyperplasia
  • Male
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular (cytology, drug effects)
  • Myocytes, Smooth Muscle (drug effects, physiology)
  • Neointima (pathology)
  • Nitric Oxide Donors (pharmacology)
  • Phenotype
  • Proline (analogs & derivatives, pharmacology)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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