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Treatment of the later stages of Parkinson's disease - pharmacological approaches now and in the future.

Abstract
The problems associated with the pharmacological treatment of the later stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) remain those seen over many years. These centre on a loss of drug effect ('wearing off') with disease progression, the occurrence of dyskinesia, notably with L-dopa use and the appearance of non-motor symptoms that are largely refractory to dopaminergic medication. Treatment strategies in late PD have been dominated by the use of drug combinations and the subtle manipulation of drug dosage. However, change is occurring as the understanding of the basis of motor complications and fluctuations and non-motor symptoms improves. New pharmacological options are expanding with the advent of longer acting versions of existing dopaminergic drugs, new drug delivery systems and the introduction of non-dopaminergic agents able to manipulate motor function both within the basal ganglia and in other brain regions. Non-dopaminergic agents are also being investigated for the treatment of dyskinesia and for the relief of non-motor symptoms. However, while therapy continues to improve, the treatment of late stage PD remains problematic with non-motor symptoms dominating the unmet need in this patient group.
AuthorsPeter Jenner
JournalTranslational neurodegeneration (Transl Neurodegener) Vol. 4 Pg. 3 ( 2015) ISSN: 2047-9158 [Electronic] England
PMID25973178 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)

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