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[Aberrant reparative tissue remodeling: histopathology and molecular pathology].

Abstract
Not only tumorous infiltrations can lead to destruction of parenchymal organs but also the aberrant proliferation and matrix production of mesenchymal cells and vessels during a dysregulated repair attempt. This fibrogenesis is the result of a complex pathogenesis, which can be investigated in animal models but also in situ to harvest new biomarkers. This article deals particularly with the second method and summarizes molecular pathological findings in various model diseases for aberrant reparative tissue reconstruction. These model diseases include plexiform vasculopathy in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), Quilty lesions in heart transplantation, bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), inflammatory airway remodeling and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced smooth muscle proliferation (posttransplantation smooth muscle tumor, PTSMT).Using in situ molecular pathology, we were able to dismiss an assumed involvement of myofibroblastic cells in vessel reconstruction of the lung in PAH. We could also for the first time perform a comprehensive molecular characterization of the vascular remodeling and prove that plexiform vasculopathy represents a complex-regulated epiphenomenon of excessive pulmonary hypertension. This method also allowed us to describe for the first time the miRNA expression in PAH in a compartment-specific manner and to draw conclusions regarding the damaged overriding regulatory mechanisms. In the same way, we were also able to describe the chimeric character of the complex neoangiogenesis in the donor organ after heart transplantation.After lung transplantation, we identified for the first time a group of tissue-based molecular markers, which can predict later occurrence of BO even in morphologically normal transbronchial biopsies. In addition, we have documented for the first time the molecular characteristics of the morphologically analogous airway reconstruction in lung-transplanted and non-transplanted patients. We could further elucidate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their antagonists in inflammatory airway reconstruction and deduce from this the resulting therapeutic implications. Accordingly, we were able to further clarify the origin, pathogenesis and the malignant potential of EBV-induced PTSMT and for the first time provide an evidence-based therapy recommendation and risk assessment.In summary, this article documents that in situ diagnostics can meet the requirements of the challenging parameters and issues of life sciences. It is to be expected that the technical possibilities will develop analogously to the increasing demands and the in situ method will move further into the focus of molecular pathology.
AuthorsD Jonigk
JournalDer Pathologe (Pathologe) Vol. 35 Suppl 2 Pg. 254-63 (Nov 2014) ISSN: 1432-1963 [Electronic] Germany
Vernacular TitleAberrierender reparativer Gewebeumbau : Histo- und Molekularpathologie.
PMID25394975 (Publication Type: English Abstract, Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Genetic Markers
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
Topics
  • Airway Remodeling (genetics)
  • Biopsy
  • Bronchiolitis Obliterans (genetics, pathology)
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Genetic Markers (genetics)
  • Heart Transplantation
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human (genetics)
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary (genetics, pathology)
  • Lung (pathology)
  • Lung Neoplasms (genetics, pathology)
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases (genetics)
  • Postoperative Complications (genetics, pathology)
  • Smooth Muscle Tumor (genetics, pathology)
  • Vascular Remodeling (genetics)

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