Assessment of the potential of pathological stains in human prostate cancer.

Incidence of prostate cancer in India is relatively low compared to the western countries. Nevertheless, an increase by 1% yearly has been recorded in the last three years, thereby making early diagnosis of prostate cancer crucial for controlling its incidence. Differentiating between benign and malignant lesions has been a diagnostic dilemma, especially in prostate pathology. This is compounded by unavailability of modern tests in certain regions of developing nations.
A cohort of one hundred seventy six prostatomegaly patients used in the current study was obtained both retrospectively and prospectively at the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. Details of the patients were recorded which included their age. The samples were then cut into 5 sections, each of 5micron thickness. One section was preserved and the other 4 sections were subjected to Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E), Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian Blue and AgNOR stains. Degree of differentiation was estimated and correlated with the Gleason score and the outcome of the stainings.
Majority of benign prostatic hyperplasia and all primary carcinoma patients were in their sixth to eighth decade of life. While all the benign lesions were negative, 6 out of 9 primary prostate carcinomas were positive for Alcian Blue stain. Majority of both benign and malignant lesions were positive for Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain. In terms of Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organiser Region (AgNOR) count per nucleus, the value in benign lesions was observed to be half the count observed in malignant lesions per nucleus.
Although the potential use of the orthodox stains individually may not serve the purpose to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, together they may have the potential to identify relatively more malignant cases. This may be helpful especially in low socio-economic countries and rural areas where molecular based tests may not yet be available.
AuthorsAnchit Khanna, Rani Patil, Abhay Deshmukh
JournalJournal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR (J Clin Diagn Res) Vol. 8 Issue 1 Pg. 124-8 (Jan 2014) ISSN: 2249-782X [Print] India
PMID24596742 (Publication Type: Journal Article)

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