Pyroptotic neuronal cell death mediated by the AIM2 inflammasome.

The central nervous system (CNS) is an active participant in the innate immune response to infection and injury. In these studies, we show embryonic cortical neurons express a functional, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-responsive, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome that activates caspase-1. Neurons undergo pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death mechanism characterized by the following: (a) oligomerization of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC); (b) caspase-1 dependency; (c) formation of discrete pores in the plasma membrane; and (d) release of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Probenecid and Brilliant Blue FCF, inhibitors of the pannexin1 channel, prevent AIM2 inflammasome-mediated cell death, identifying pannexin1 as a cell death effector during pyroptosis and probenecid as a novel pyroptosis inhibitor. Furthermore, we show activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in neurons by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and oligomerization of ASC. These findings suggest neuronal pyroptosis is an important cell death mechanism during CNS infection and injury that may be attenuated by probenecid.
AuthorsStephanie E Adamczak, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Gordon Dale, Frank J Brand 3rd, Doris Nonner, M Ross Bullock, Gerhard P Dahl, W Dalton Dietrich, Robert W Keane
JournalJournal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (J Cereb Blood Flow Metab) Vol. 34 Issue 4 Pg. 621-9 (Apr 2014) ISSN: 1559-7016 [Electronic] United States
PMID24398937 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • AIM2 protein, human
  • AIM2 protein, rat
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Inflammasomes
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Poly dA-dT
  • Caspase 1
  • Probenecid
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis (drug effects, immunology)
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins (metabolism)
  • Brain Injuries (cerebrospinal fluid, immunology, metabolism, pathology)
  • Caspase 1 (metabolism)
  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Death
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cerebral Cortex (cytology, embryology)
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate (drug effects)
  • Inflammasomes (immunology, metabolism)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurons (drug effects, immunology, metabolism, pathology)
  • Nuclear Proteins (metabolism)
  • Poly dA-dT (pharmacology)
  • Probenecid (pharmacology)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Young Adult

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