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Urinary metabolites of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer development in lifelong never smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study.

Abstract
Exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various environmental and occupational sources are considered a primary risk factor for lung cancer among lifelong never smokers, based largely on results from epidemiologic studies utilizing self-reported exposure information. Prospective, biomarker-based human studies on the role of PAH and other airborne carcinogens in the development of lung cancer among lifelong non-smokers have been lacking. We prospectively investigated levels of urinary metabolites of a PAH and volatile organic compounds in relation to lung cancer risk in a nested case-control study of 82 cases and 83 controls among lifelong never smokers of the Shanghai Cohort Study, a prospective cohort of 18 244 Chinese men aged 45-64 years at enrollment. We quantified three PAH metabolites: r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-Phe) and total hydroxyphenanthrenes (total OH-Phe, the sum of 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-OH-Phe), as well as metabolites of the volatile organic compounds acrolein (3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid), benzene (S-phenyl mercapturic acid), crotonaldehyde (3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid) and ethylene oxide (2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid). Urinary cotinine was also quantified to confirm non-smoking status. Compared with the lowest quartile, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for lung cancer risk for the highest quartile levels of PheT, 3-OH-Phe and total OH-Phe were 2.98 (1.13-7.87), 3.10 (1.12-7.75) and 2.59 (1.01-6.65) (all P trend < 0.05), respectively. None of the metabolites of the volatile organic compounds were associated with overall lung cancer risk. This study demonstrates a potentially important role of exposure to PAH in the development of lung cancer among lifelong never smokers.
AuthorsJian-Min Yuan, Lesley M Butler, Yu-Tang Gao, Sharon E Murphy, Steven G Carmella, Renwei Wang, Heather H Nelson, Stephen S Hecht
JournalCarcinogenesis (Carcinogenesis) Vol. 35 Issue 2 Pg. 339-45 (Feb 2014) ISSN: 1460-2180 [Electronic] England
PMID24148823 (Publication Type: Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural)
Chemical References
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
Topics
  • Biomarkers, Tumor (urine)
  • Case-Control Studies
  • China
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms (diagnosis, urine)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic (urine)
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking (adverse effects)
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (urine)

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