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RON receptor tyrosine kinase, a negative regulator of inflammation, is decreased during simian immunodeficiency virus-associated central nervous system disease.

Abstract
Expressed on tissue-resident macrophages, the receptor tyrosine kinase, recepteur d'orgine nantais (RON), functions to maintain inflammation homeostasis by activating genes that promote wound repair and resolve inflammation while repressing genes that perpetuate tissue damage and cell death. Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with dysregulated inflammation, and we hypothesize that diminished RON expression contributes to the development of end organ diseases such as HIV-1-associated CNS disease. To explore RON function in vivo, we used CNS tissue from a well-characterized SIV macaque model and examined the temporal regulation of RON in the brain during the course of infection. Following prolonged SIV infection, RON expression was inversely correlated with the development of CNS disease; RON was maintained in animals that did not develop CNS lesions and was reduced in SIV-infected macaques that demonstrated moderate to severe inflammatory lesions. Arginase-1 expression was reduced in the brain during late infection, whereas expression of the inflammatory genes, IL-12p40 and TNF-α, was elevated. To validate a role for RON in regulating HIV-1 in primary cells, we used human tissue-resident macrophages isolated from tonsil as a tractable cell model. RON signaling in tissue-resident macrophages, both ligand dependent and independent, limited HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, prolonged HIV-1 infection in vitro resulted in downregulation of RON. We propose a model in which, following chronic HIV-1 infection in the brain, RON expression is decreased, genes that quell inflammation are repressed, and inflammatory mediators are induced to promote tissue inflammation.
AuthorsDaniele C Cary, Janice E Clements, Andrew J Henderson
JournalJournal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (J Immunol) Vol. 191 Issue 8 Pg. 4280-7 (Oct 15 2013) ISSN: 1550-6606 [Electronic] United States
PMID24043899 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural)
Chemical References
  • Interleukin-12 Subunit p40
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • RON protein
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Arg1 protein, mouse
  • Arginase
Topics
  • Animals
  • Arginase (biosynthesis)
  • Central Nervous System (immunology, metabolism, virology)
  • Central Nervous System Diseases (immunology, virology)
  • HIV Infections (immunology, virology)
  • HIV-1 (immunology)
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-12 Subunit p40 (biosynthesis)
  • Macaca nemestrina
  • Macrophages (immunology, metabolism)
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (genetics, metabolism)
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (immunology)
  • Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (immunology)
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (biosynthesis)

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