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Glanders: an overview of infection in humans.

Abstract
Glanders is a highly contagious and often fatal zoonotic disease, primarily of solipds. In the developed world, glanders has been eradicated. However, prior use of B. mallei as a biological weapon and its high mortality in inhalation animal studies has affirmed B. mallei as a biodefense concern. This threat requires the development of new glanders medical countermeasures (MCMs), as there is a lack of an effective vaccine and lengthy courses of multiple antibiotics needed to eradicate B. mallei. Here, we present a literature review of human glanders in which we discuss the clinical epidemiology and risk factors, potential routes of exposure, symptoms, the incubation period, and specific diagnostics. This review focuses on pulmonary glanders, as this is the most likely outcome of a biological weapons attack. Additionally, we outline current treatment regimens and propose a clinical definition of human pulmonary glanders infection.
AuthorsKristopher E Van Zandt, Marek T Greer, H Carl Gelhaus
JournalOrphanet journal of rare diseases (Orphanet J Rare Dis) Vol. 8 Pg. 131 ( 2013) ISSN: 1750-1172 [Electronic] England
PMID24004906 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S., Review)
Topics
  • Animals
  • Burkholderia mallei (pathogenicity)
  • Glanders (epidemiology, microbiology)
  • Horses
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases (microbiology)

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