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Treatment of hepatitis B in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Abstract
Although the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with chronic kidney disease remains low in developed countries, clinicians should be aware of the rationale for treatment in this setting. This patient population presents particular features and various complicating conditions requiring special treatment strategies. Interferon, the standard treatment for HBV infection, has been poorly tolerated by patients with chronic kidney disease, has presented relatively low efficacy, and has posed renal transplant recipients under the risk of acute rejection. The advent of effective nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) has offered the opportunity to minimize the consequences of HBV infection in HBV-positive patients with chronic kidney disease. Combination with immunosuppressive agents might be considered in cases of rapid renal function deterioration and/or severe proteinuria. Among the newer NAs, entecavir may be preferred, because of its high potency, high genetic barrier to resistance, and favorable renal safety profile. However, entecavir presented low efficacy in case of lamivudine or telbivudine resistance, and thus tenofovir may be a better option in that setting. All HBsAg-positive candidates should be treated with NAs before renal transplantation in order to maintain undetectable HBV DNA, reduce liver fibrosis, and prevent hepatic decompensation after renal transplantation. This review summarizes updated issues related to treatment of chronic HBV infection in all categories of population with chronic kidney disease (those exhibiting HBV-associated glomerular disease, those treated with hemodialysis, as well as renal transplant candidates, donors, and recipients).
AuthorsChrysoula L Pipili, George V Papatheodoridis, Evangelos C Cholongitas
JournalKidney international (Kidney Int) Vol. 84 Issue 5 Pg. 880-5 (Nov 2013) ISSN: 1523-1755 [Electronic] United States
PMID23783238 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
Topics
  • Antiviral Agents (adverse effects, therapeutic use)
  • Comorbidity
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic (diagnosis, drug therapy, epidemiology, mortality)
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents (adverse effects)
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Renal Dialysis (adverse effects, mortality)
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic (diagnosis, epidemiology, mortality, therapy)
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

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