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Inversin/Nephrocystin-2 is required for fibroblast polarity and directional cell migration.

Abstract
Inversin is a ciliary protein that critically regulates developmental processes and tissue homeostasis in vertebrates, partly through the degradation of Dishevelled (Dvl) proteins to coordinate Wnt signaling in planar cell polarity (PCP). Here, we investigated the role of Inversin in coordinating cell migration, which highly depends on polarity processes at the single-cell level, including the spatial and temporal organization of the cytoskeleton as well as expression and cellular localization of proteins in leading edge formation of migrating cells. Using cultures of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from inv(-/-) and inv(+/+) animals, we confirmed that both inv(-/-) and inv(+/+) MEFs form primary cilia, and that Inversin localizes to the primary cilium in inv(+/+) MEFs. In wound healing assays, inv(-/-) MEFs were severely compromised in their migratory ability and exhibited cytoskeletal rearrangements, including distorted lamellipodia formation and cilia orientation. Transcriptome analysis revealed dysregulation of Wnt signaling and of pathways regulating actin organization and focal adhesions in inv(-/-) MEFs as compared to inv(+/+) MEFs. Further, Dvl-1 and Dvl-3 localized to MEF primary cilia, and β-catenin/Wnt signaling was elevated in inv(-/-) MEFs, which moreover showed reduced ciliary localization of Dvl-3. Finally, inv(-/-) MEFs displayed dramatically altered activity and localization of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 GTPases, and aberrant expression and targeting of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins to the edge of cells facing the wound. Phosphorylation of β-catenin at the ciliary base and formation of well-defined lamellipodia with localization and activation of ERM to the leading edge of migrating cells were restored in inv(-/-) MEFs expressing Inv-GFP. Collectively, our findings point to the significance of Inversin in controlling cell migration processes, at least in part through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in Wnt signaling and pathways that control cytoskeletal organization and ion transport.
AuthorsIben R Veland, Rodrick Montjean, Lorraine Eley, Lotte B Pedersen, Albrecht Schwab, Judith Goodship, Karsten Kristiansen, Stine F Pedersen, Sophie Saunier, Søren T Christensen
JournalPloS one (PLoS One) Vol. 8 Issue 4 Pg. e60193 ( 2013) ISSN: 1932-6203 [Electronic] United States
PMID23593172 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Invs protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors
  • Wnt Proteins
  • beta Catenin
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
Topics
  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Polarity
  • Cilia (metabolism)
  • Cytoskeleton (metabolism)
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts (cytology, metabolism)
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mice
  • Pregnancy
  • Protein Transport
  • Pseudopodia (metabolism)
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors (deficiency, metabolism)
  • Transcriptome
  • Wnt Proteins (metabolism)
  • Wound Healing
  • beta Catenin (metabolism)
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins (metabolism)

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