Increasing doxorubicin activity against breast cancer cells using PPARγ-ligands and by exploiting circadian rhythms.

Doxorubicin is effective against breast cancer, but its major side effect is cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the efficacy of doxorubicin on cancer cells could be increased in combination with PPARγ agonists or chrono-optimization by exploiting the diurnal cycle.
We determined cell toxicity using MCF-7 cancer cells, neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts in this study.
Doxorubicin damages the contractile filaments of cardiac myocytes and affects cardiac fibroblasts by significantly inhibiting collagen production and proliferation at the level of the cell cycle. Cyclin D1 protein levels decreased significantly following doxorubicin treatment indicative of a G1/S arrest. PPARγ agonists with doxorubicin increased the toxicity to MCF-7 cancer cells without affecting cardiac cells. Rosiglitazone and ciglitazone both enhanced anti-cancer activity when combined with doxorubicin (e.g. 50% cell death for doxorubicin at 0.1 μM compared to 80% cell death when combined with rosiglitazone). Thus, the therapeutic dose of doxorubicin could be reduced by 20-fold through combination with the PPARγ agonists, thereby reducing adverse effects on the heart. The presence of melatonin also significantly increased doxorubicin toxicity, in cardiac fibroblasts (1 μM melatonin) but not in MCF-7 cells.
Our data show, for the first time, that circadian rhythms play an important role in doxorubicin toxicity in the myocardium; doxorubicin should be administered mid-morning, when circulating levels of melatonin are low, and in combination with rosiglitazone to increase therapeutic efficacy in cancer cells while reducing the toxic effects on the heart.
AuthorsI S Arif, C L Hooper, F Greco, A C Williams, S Y Boateng
JournalBritish journal of pharmacology (Br J Pharmacol) Vol. 169 Issue 5 Pg. 1178-88 (Jul 2013) ISSN: 1476-5381 [Electronic] England
PMID23578093 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Copyright© 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.
Chemical References
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Ligands
  • PPAR gamma
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • rosiglitazone
  • ciglitazone
  • Doxorubicin
  • Collagen
  • Melatonin
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic (administration & dosage)
  • Breast Neoplasms (drug therapy, metabolism)
  • Cell Cycle (drug effects)
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Collagen (metabolism)
  • Doxorubicin (administration & dosage)
  • Drug Chronotherapy
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts (drug effects)
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Melatonin (metabolism)
  • Myocytes, Cardiac (drug effects)
  • PPAR gamma (agonists, metabolism)
  • Rats
  • Sarcomeres (drug effects)
  • Thiazolidinediones (administration & dosage)

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