Effects of iodonium-class flavin dehydrogenase inhibitors on growth, reactive oxygen production, cell cycle progression, NADPH oxidase 1 levels, and gene expression in human colon cancer cells and xenografts.

Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explains the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1, or Nox1). We found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodonium diphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10-250nM for DPI, 0.5-2.5μM for DTI, and 155nM to 10μM for iodonium diphenyl) substantially lower than needed for DU145 human prostate cancer cells, which do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24h, after short-term (1-h) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced peak plasma concentrations similar to those utilized for our in vitro experiments. These findings suggest that iodonium analogs have therapeutic potential for NADPH oxidase-containing human colon cancers in vivo and that at least part of their antineoplastic mechanism of action may be related to targeting Nox1.
AuthorsJames H Doroshow, Shikha Gaur, Susan Markel, Jiamo Lu, Josephus van Balgooy, Timothy W Synold, Bixin Xi, Xiwei Wu, Agnes Juhasz
JournalFree radical biology & medicine (Free Radic Biol Med) Vol. 57 Pg. 162-75 (Apr 2013) ISSN: 1873-4596 [Electronic] United States
PMID23314043 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural)
CopyrightPublished by Elsevier Inc.
Chemical References
  • Cyclins
  • Flavoproteins
  • Onium Compounds
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Thiophenes
  • iodonium thiophene
  • diphenyleneiodonium
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • NOX1 protein, human
  • NADPH Oxidase
  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle (drug effects)
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation (drug effects)
  • Colonic Neoplasms (metabolism)
  • Cyclins (biosynthesis)
  • Flavoproteins (antagonists & inhibitors)
  • G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints (drug effects)
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Mice
  • NADPH Oxidase (genetics, metabolism)
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Onium Compounds (pharmacology)
  • Prostatic Neoplasms (metabolism)
  • RNA, Messenger (biosynthesis)
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (metabolism)
  • Thiophenes (pharmacology)
  • Transplantation, Heterologous

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