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Organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2 determine the accumulation of lamivudine in CD4 cells of HIV-infected patients.

AbstractPURPOSE:
Identifying factors that determine concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in CD4 cells are important for improving therapeutic efficacy. Experimental models indicate that the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine is transported by the organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (OCT1 and OCT2, respectively). Here, we tested whether OCT1 and OCT2 contribute to the uptake of lamivudine into native CD4 cells of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.
METHODS:
CD4 cells obtained by non-activated cell sorting from 35 individuals with HIV-1 infection were incubated with lamivudine (10 μM, 30 min), and intracellular concentrations of lamivudine and its active metabolite lamivudine triphosphate were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of OCT1 and OCT2 mRNA was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A model of OCT2-transfected CD4 cells was established for mechanistic investigations.
RESULTS:
Intracellular concentrations of lamivudine and its active metabolite lamivudine triphosphate showed strong linear correlations with each other and with the CD4 mRNA expression of OCT1 and OCT2 (r > 0.80). Coincubation with protease inhibitors (ritonavir, nelfinavir) that inhibit OCT1 and OCT2 yielded decreased intracellular concentrations of lamivudine and lamivudine triphosphate. Incubation of CD4 cells from healthy donors transfected with an OCT2 expression vector yielded increased concentrations of lamivudine and lamivudine triphosphate.
CONCLUSION:
Our studies indicate a role of OCT1 and OCT2 for the cellular accumulation of lamivudine in HIV-infected individuals.
AuthorsN Jung, C Lehmann, A Rubbert, E Schömig, G Fätkenheuer, P Hartmann, D Taubert
JournalInfection (Infection) Vol. 41 Issue 2 Pg. 379-85 (Apr 2013) ISSN: 1439-0973 [Electronic] Germany
PMID22875535 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Dideoxynucleotides
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors
  • Organic Cation Transport Proteins
  • Organic Cation Transporter 1
  • RNA, Messenger
  • SLC22A2 protein, human
  • lamivudine triphosphate
  • Lamivudine
  • Cytidine Triphosphate
  • Nelfinavir
  • Ritonavir
Topics
  • Adult
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes (drug effects, metabolism)
  • Cytidine Triphosphate (administration & dosage, analogs & derivatives, pharmacokinetics)
  • Dideoxynucleotides (administration & dosage, pharmacokinetics)
  • Female
  • HIV Infections (drug therapy)
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors (administration & dosage, pharmacokinetics)
  • HIV-1 (drug effects)
  • Humans
  • Lamivudine (administration & dosage, analogs & derivatives, pharmacokinetics)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nelfinavir (pharmacology)
  • Organic Cation Transport Proteins (genetics, metabolism)
  • Organic Cation Transporter 1 (genetics, metabolism)
  • Phosphorylation
  • RNA, Messenger (genetics, metabolism)
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Ritonavir (pharmacology)
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Transfection
  • Young Adult

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