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The protective effects of cromakalim and pinacidil on reperfusion function and infarct size in isolated perfused rat hearts and anesthetized dogs.

Abstract
The direct myocardial protective effects of intracoronary infusions of cromakalim and pinacidil were determined in an anesthetized canine model of coronary occlusion and reperfusion. The left circumflex coronary artery was occluded for 90 minutes and reperfused for 5 hours, at which time the infarct size was determined. Cromakalim (0.1 micrograms/kg/min) or pinacidil (0.09 micrograms/kg/min) were infused into the left circumflex coronary artery starting 10 minutes preischemia. Cromakalim significantly reduced infarct size as a percent of the left ventricular area at risk (25 +/- 5%) compared with vehicle controls (55 +/- 7%). Pinacidil did not reduce infarct size at an equimolar dose, but at the higher dose also significantly reduced infarct size. Collateral blood flow was not significantly altered by either drug, though reperfusion flow was significantly higher in cromakalim-treated animals, particularly in the subepicardial region. When the same dose of cromakalim was given starting 2 minutes before the initiation of reperfusion, no significant beneficial effect of cromakalim was observed. In another study, isolated buffer-perfused rat hearts were subjected to 25 minutes of global ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion. These hearts were treated with 7 microM cromakalim, either starting 10 minutes before ischemia or only during reperfusion, and its effect on reperfusion function and LDH release were determined. Cromakalim pretreatment (both when given throughout the experiment and when not present in the reperfusion buffer) resulted in significant improvements in the reperfusion function. Reperfusion contracture and LDH were also significantly reduced with this treatment. When given only during reperfusion, cromakalim did not reduce the severity of ischemia when compared with vehicle controls. Thus, both cromakalim and pinacidil reduce ischemic/reperfusion injury, though the timing of treatment may be important.
AuthorsG J Grover, S Dzwonczyk, C S Parham, P G Sleph
JournalCardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy (Cardiovasc Drugs Ther) Vol. 4 Issue 2 Pg. 465-74 (Apr 1990) ISSN: 0920-3206 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID2285630 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Benzopyrans
  • Guanidines
  • Pyrroles
  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Cromakalim
  • Pinacidil
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Pentobarbital
Topics
  • Animals
  • Benzopyrans (therapeutic use)
  • Blood Pressure (drug effects)
  • Cromakalim
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Guanidines (therapeutic use)
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction (drug therapy)
  • Myocardial Reperfusion Injury (prevention & control)
  • Pentobarbital
  • Pinacidil
  • Pyrroles (therapeutic use)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Vasodilator Agents (therapeutic use)

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