Global use of rubella vaccines, 1980-2009.

In most developing countries, rubella vaccine has not been included in the Expanded Programme on Immunization because of lack of information on the burden of disease caused by rubella virus, increased cost associated with adding rubella vaccine, and the concern that if high vaccine coverage cannot be achieved and maintained, the risk of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) may increase. Data for 2009 reported by countries to the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund through the annual Joint Reporting Form were used to indicate patterns in the worldwide use of rubella vaccines, describe the number of reported rubella and CRS cases by WHO Region, and explore factors associated with decisions by countries to introduce rubella vaccine in their national childhood immunization programs. The number of WHO Member States using rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) in their national childhood immunization schedule increased from 83 (43%) in 1996 to 130 (67%) in 2009. Although scheduled ages for rubella vaccination vary across countries and regions, most countries have a 2-dose schedule using a combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Among 130 countries using RCV in 2009, median coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) was 95% (interquartile range [IQR], 90%-98%), compared with a median MCV1 coverage of 76% (IQR, 64%-88%) in countries not using RCV. The median per capita gross national income among 130 countries using RCV was US $6300 (IQR, $3227-$20 916), compared with $635 (IQR, $337-$1027) for 63 countries not using RCV. In 2009, 121 344 rubella cases from 167 countries were reported to WHO. However, only 165 CRS cases were reported globally, of which 67 were in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Further improvements in surveillance are needed to better document the burden of CRS, and new financing mechanisms will be required to catalyze the introduction of rubella vaccine in developing countries that currently meet the coverage criteria for introduction of rubella vaccine.
AuthorsPeter M Strebel, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Susan Reef, Stephen L Cochi
JournalThe Journal of infectious diseases (J Infect Dis) Vol. 204 Suppl 2 Pg. S579-84 (Sep 1 2011) ISSN: 1537-6613 [Electronic] United States
PMID21954250 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Rubella Vaccine
  • Communicable Disease Control (methods)
  • Developing Countries
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Internationality
  • Population Surveillance
  • Public Policy
  • Rubella (epidemiology, prevention & control)
  • Rubella Vaccine (administration & dosage, immunology)
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • World Health Organization

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