Potential approaches to enhance the effects of estrogen on senescent blood vessels and postmenopausal cardiovascular disease.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Vascular estrogen receptors ERalpha, ERbeta and a transmembrane estrogen-binding protein GPR30 have been described. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and extracellular matrix. However, randomized clinical trials have not supported vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), possibly due to the subjects' advanced age and age-related changes in estrogen synthesis and metabolic pathways, the vascular ERs number, distribution and integrity, and the post-ER vascular signaling pathways. Current MHT includes natural estrogens such as conjugated equine estrogen, as well as synthetic and semi-synthetic estrogens. New estrogenic formulations and hormone combinations have been developed. Phytoestrogens is being promoted as an alternative MHT. Specific ER modulators (SERMs), and selective agonists for ERalpha such as PPT, ERbeta such as DPN, and GPR30 such as G1 are being evaluated. In order to enhance the vascular effectiveness of MHT, its type, dose, route of administration and timing may need to be customized depending on the subject's age and pre-existing CVD. Also, the potential interaction of estrogen with progesterone and testosterone on vascular function may need to be considered in order to maximize the vascular benefits of MHT on senescent blood vessels and postmenopausal CVD.
AuthorsRaouf A Khalil
JournalCardiovascular & hematological agents in medicinal chemistry (Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem) Vol. 8 Issue 1 Pg. 29-46 (Jan 2010) ISSN: 1875-6182 [Electronic] Netherlands
PMID20210774 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Review)
Chemical References
  • Estrogens
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases (drug therapy)
  • Estrogens (metabolism, therapeutic use)
  • Female
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones (therapeutic use)
  • Humans
  • Menopause (drug effects)
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Receptors, Estrogen (metabolism)

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