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[Salt--hidden poison in everyday meal].

Abstract
A large number of epidemiologic, evolutionary and clinical studies have confirmed that table salt is a significant factor in determining the blood pressure (BP) level, and thereby in the prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH). It has been observed in epidemiologic studies that BP increases with age only if accompanied by excessive table salt intake. In addition to affecting BP, increased salt intake independently contributes to target organ damage. Correlation has also been observed between coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, cerebrovascular insult, microalbuminuria. Table salt, i.e. NaCl, is directly involved in the process of atherothrombogenesis by changing the relation between vasoactive factors in the blood vessel wall, by affecting the expression of receptor for angiotensin II and, which is particularly important, by elevating platelet aggregability. From clinical and public health aspects, the data obtained in interventional studies are particularly important, as well as those that apparently confirm the benefit of restricting NaCl intake. This benefit is manifested not only in decreased BP and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but also in improved total health as it is known that excessive table salt intake is also a risk factor for osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, gastric and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, etc. Although there were some studies that raised doubt about the fact that reduced table salt intake could be harmful due to activation of counter-regulative mechanisms, a substantially higher number of authors demonstrated that moderate intake reduction was not associated with the increased risk but rather the contrary. Table salt intake restriction should be performed as part of other lifestyle changes, primarily weight loss and increased physical activity. During NaCl intake reduction, it is necessary to pay attention to other electrolytes and microelements that are also important stones in the mosaic of healthy living. Gooverment authorities and food manufacturers bear heavy responsibility as ready or half-cooked food accounts for over 70% of NaCl intake into the body.
AuthorsBojan Jelaković, Vedran Premuzić, Berislav Skupnjak, Zeljko Reiner
JournalLijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik (Lijec Vjesn) 2009 May-Jun Vol. 131 Issue 5-6 Pg. 146-54 ISSN: 0024-3477 [Print] Croatia
Vernacular TitleKuhinjska sol--skriveni otrov u svakodnevnoj hrani.
PMID19642535 (Publication Type: English Abstract, Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
Topics
  • Blood Pressure (drug effects)
  • Cardiovascular Diseases (etiology)
  • Humans
  • Hypertension (etiology, physiopathology)
  • Risk Factors
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary (adverse effects)

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