Sevoflurane preconditioning against focal cerebral ischemia: inhibition of apoptosis in the face of transient improvement of neurological outcome.

Preconditioning the brain with volatile anesthetics seems to be a viable option for reducing ischemic cerebral injury. However, it is uncertain whether this preconditioning effect extends over a longer period of time. The purpose of this study was to determine if sevoflurane preconditioning offers durable neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia.
Rats (Sprague-Dawley) were randomly allocated to two groups: nonpreconditioned control group (n = 44) and preconditioned group (n = 45) exposed to 2.7 vol% sevoflurane (45 min) 60 min before surgery. Animals in both groups were anesthetized with 3.0 vol% sevoflurane and subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. After 60 min of awake focal ischemia, the filament was removed. Functional neurologic outcome (range 0-18; 0 = no deficit), cerebral infarct size (Nissl staining), and apoptosis (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling; cleaved caspase-3 staining) were evaluated at 3, 7, and 14 days after ischemia.
Sevoflurane preconditioning significantly improved functional outcome and reduced infarct volume (109 +/- 43 vs. 148 +/- 56 mm(3)) 3 days after ischemia compared to the control group. However, after 7- and 14-day recovery periods, no significant differences were observed between groups. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly lower in the preconditioned group than in the control group after 3- and 7-day recovery periods. Fourteen days after ischemia, no differences were observed between groups.
In this model of transient focal cerebral ischemia, sevoflurane preconditioning induced effective but transient neuroprotective effects. Sevoflurane preconditioning also decreased ischemia-induced apoptosis in a more sustained way because it was observed up to 7 days after injury.
AuthorsJean-Laurent Codaccioni, Lionel J Velly, Chahrazad Moubarik, Nicolas J Bruder, Pascale S Pisano, Benjamin A Guillet
JournalAnesthesiology (Anesthesiology) Vol. 110 Issue 6 Pg. 1271-8 (Jun 2009) ISSN: 1528-1175 [Electronic] United States
PMID19417596 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation
  • Methyl Ethers
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • sevoflurane
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation (pharmacology)
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis (drug effects)
  • Behavior, Animal (physiology)
  • Brain Ischemia (pathology, physiopathology, prevention & control)
  • DNA Fragmentation
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery (pathology, prevention & control)
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient (physiopathology, prevention & control)
  • Ischemic Preconditioning
  • Methyl Ethers (pharmacology)
  • Nervous System Diseases (pathology, psychology)
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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