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Ethanol-induced malfunction of neutrophils respiratory burst on patients suffering from alcohol dependence.

AbstractBACKGROUND:
Polymorphonuclear, neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) play a major role in the control of infections, and people who abuse alcohol are susceptible to infections. Resistance against infections ensues intracellularly following initial phagocytosis of microorganisms with the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst, the key enzyme of which is the respiratory burst oxidase, whereby oxygen radicals are produced for microbial destruction. To date there is insufficient information available in connection with the process of impaired defence against infection in patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Therefore, our investigation was carried out to determine the influence of alcohol exposition on the formation of oxygen radicals and the respiratory burst.
METHODS:
4.5 ml of whole blood was taken from 10 healthy adults and 10 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. An additional 3.5 ml of whole blood was taken from the alcoholic patients for determination of the blood alcohol concentration. The respiratory burst of PMN was tested using the Four-Colour-Continuous Flow Cytometer. Each experimental procedure consisted of 4 test samples [negative controls, Escherichia coli, FMLP-supplement (N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanin), PMA-supplement (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate)]. Differing concentrations of ethanol were also introduced to each of the tests performed (0.20 to 4.00 g/l).
RESULTS:
Ethanol revealed a marked decrease of burst activity in those patients suffering from alcoholism with increased alcohol concentration. A dependence between the burst activity and the ethanol concentration was seen to be statistically significant. This effect was only evident after stimulation with E. coli and FMLP in those patients with alcohol dependence.
CONCLUSION:
The results presented in this study show an impairment in the function of PMN in those patients addicted to alcohol due to the decrease in burst activity. In view of the results of the different stimuli, the second-messenger effects were not evident. A clarification of this phenomenon could well be assumed as an allosteric receptor effect on the burst oxidase, namely, a direct effect on the phagocytosis interaction between circulating granulocytes and causative organisms.
AuthorsDirk Breitmeier, Nina Becker, Christian Weilbach, Knut Albrecht, Dirk Scheinichen, Bernhard Panning, Udo Schneider, Björn Jüttner
JournalAlcoholism, clinical and experimental research (Alcohol Clin Exp Res) Vol. 32 Issue 10 Pg. 1708-13 (Oct 2008) ISSN: 1530-0277 [Electronic] England
PMID18627360 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Central Nervous System Depressants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Ethanol
Topics
  • Adult
  • Alcoholism (metabolism)
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Central Nervous System Depressants (adverse effects)
  • Ethanol (adverse effects)
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neutrophils (drug effects)
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (metabolism)
  • Respiratory Burst (drug effects)

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