Protein folding forces.

We investigate the average inter-residue folding forces derived from mutational data of the 15 proteins: barstar, barnase, chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2), Src SH3 domain, spectrin R16 domain, Arc repressor, apo-azurin, cold shock protein B (cspB), C-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9), FKBP12, alpha-lactalbumin, colicin E7 immunity protein 7 (IM7), colicin E9 immunity protein 9 (IM9), spectrin R17 domain, and ubiquitin. The residue-specific contributions to folding in most of the 15 protein molecules are highly non-uniformly distributed and are typically about 1piconewton (pN) per interaction. The strongest folding forces often occur in some of the helices and strands of folding nuclei which suggests that folding nucleation-condensation is partially directed by formation of some secondary structure interactions. The correlation of the energy changes of mutants with inter-residue contact maps of the protein molecules provides a higher resolution than assigning the mutant data to certain positions in the polypeptide strand alone. In contrast to previous Phi-value analysis, we now can partially resolve folding motions. Compaction of at least one alpha-helix along its axis mediated by internal hydrogen bonds and stabilized by diffuse tertiary structure interactions appears to be one important molecular event during early folding in barstar, CI2, spectrin R16 domain, Arc repressor, alpha-lactalbumin, IM7, IM9, and spectrin R17 domain. A lateral movement of at least two strands neighbored in sequence towards each other appears to be involved in early folding of the SH3 domain, cspB, CTL9, and FKBP12.
AuthorsBengt Nölting, Neema Salimi, Ulrich Guth
JournalJournal of theoretical biology (J Theor Biol) Vol. 251 Issue 2 Pg. 331-47 (Mar 21 2008) ISSN: 1095-8541 [Electronic] Netherlands
PMID18177671 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Proteins
  • Animals
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Models, Molecular
  • Mutation
  • Protein Folding
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Proteins (chemistry, genetics)

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