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The Ca2+-binding capacity of epidermal furin is disrupted by H2O2-mediated oxidation in vitiligo.

Abstract
The Ca(2+)-dependent precursor convertase furin is abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes. In this context, it is noteworthy that proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cleavage is also processed by furin, leading to ACTH, beta-lipotropin, and beta-endorphin. All prohormone convertases including furin are regulated by Ca(2+). Because numerous epidermal peptides and enzymes are affected by H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation, including the POMC-derived peptides alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin as shown in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo, we here asked the question of whether furin could also be a possible target for this oxidation mechanism by using immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, Western blotting, Ca(2+)-binding studies, and computer modeling. Our results demonstrate significantly decreased in situ immunoreactivity of furin in the epidermis of patients with progressive vitiligo (n = 10), suggesting H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidation. This was confirmed by (45)Ca(2+)-binding studies with human recombinant furin identifying the loss of one Ca(2+)-binding site from the enzyme after oxidation with H(2)O(2). Computer simulation supported alteration of one of the two Ca(2+)-binding sites on furin. Taken together, our results implicate that the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic activity of this convertase is targeted by H(2)O(2), which in turn could contribute to the reduced epidermal expression of the POMC-derived peptides alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin as documented earlier in patients with vitiligo.
AuthorsJ D Spencer, N C J Gibbons, M Böhm, K U Schallreuter
JournalEndocrinology (Endocrinology) Vol. 149 Issue 4 Pg. 1638-45 (Apr 2008) ISSN: 0013-7227 [Print] United States
PMID18174282 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Furin
  • Calcium
Topics
  • Binding Sites
  • Calcium (metabolism)
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Epidermis (metabolism)
  • Furin (chemistry, genetics, metabolism)
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (pharmacology)
  • Models, Molecular
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • RNA, Messenger (analysis)
  • Vitiligo (metabolism)

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