Zymar (Gatifloxacin 0.3%) shows excellent Gram-negative activity against Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a New Zealand White rabbit keratitis model.

Whereas gatifloxacin, a newer fluoroquinolone, was engineered to increase its Gram-positive potency, we assessed whether it still retained significant Gram-negative activity in vivo. Specifically, we compared the efficacy of Zymar (gatifloxacin 0.3%), Ciloxan (ciprofloxacin 0.3%), and fortified tobramycin (14 mg/mL) in the treatment of experimental Gram-negative bacterial infections of Serratia marcescens (SM) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit keratitis model.
A total of 30 NZW rabbits each were intrastromally inoculated in both eyes with approximately 1000 CFU of SM and PA. By E-test, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs; microg/mL) for SM were gatifloxacin (0.125), ciprofloxacin (0.047), and tobramycin (1.5), and for PA were gatifloxacin (0.125), ciprofloxacin (0.19), and tobramycin (0.5). After 16 hours, the rabbits were divided into 4 treatment groups: (1) Zymar, (2) Ciloxan, (3) fortified tobramycin, and (4) saline control. One drop was instilled in both eyes every 15 minutes for 5 doses and then every 30 minutes for 14 doses. One hour after the final treatment, the animals were euthanized, and bacterial colony counts from the corneas were determined.
For SM, Zymar and Ciloxan significantly reduced (P < 0.001, ANOVA) the colony counts compared with tobramycin and saline control. Zymar was more effective than Ciloxan (P < 0.001, ANOVA). For PA, all antibiotics reduced equivalently the colony counts compared with the saline control (P = 0.005, ANOVA).
The enhanced Gram-positive activity of gatifloxacin is not associated with any decreased Gram-negative activity in vivo. Zymar may prove useful for SM and PA keratitis.
AuthorsFrancis S Mah, Eric G Romanowski, Regis P Kowalski, Kathleen A Yates, Y Jerold Gordon
JournalCornea (Cornea) Vol. 26 Issue 5 Pg. 585-8 (Jun 2007) ISSN: 0277-3740 [Print] United States
PMID17525656 (Publication Type: Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • gatifloxacin
  • Tobramycin
  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents (therapeutic use)
  • Ciprofloxacin (therapeutic use)
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Corneal Ulcer (drug therapy, microbiology)
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Eye Infections, Bacterial (drug therapy, microbiology)
  • Female
  • Fluoroquinolones (therapeutic use)
  • Pseudomonas Infections (drug therapy, microbiology)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (drug effects, isolation & purification)
  • Rabbits
  • Serratia Infections (drug therapy, microbiology)
  • Serratia marcescens (drug effects, isolation & purification)
  • Tobramycin (therapeutic use)

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