Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the proteolytic activation of protein kinase Cdelta in dopaminergic neuronal cells.

Oxidative stress is a key apoptotic stimulus in neuronal cell death and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated that protein kinase C-delta (PKCdelta) is an oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that can be activated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage to induce apoptotic cell death in cell culture models of Parkinson disease (Kaul, S., Kanthasamy, A., Kitazawa, M., Anantharam, V., and Kanthasamy, A. G. (2003) Eur. J. Neurosci. 18, 1387-1401 and Kanthasamy, A. G., Kitazawa, M., Kanthasamy, A., and Anantharam, V. (2003) Antioxid. Redox. Signal. 5, 609-620). Here we showed that the phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue in PKCdelta can regulate the proteolytic activation of the kinase during oxidative stress, which consequently influences the apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Exposure of a mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell line (N27 cells) to H(2)O(2)(0-300 microm) induced a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activation and PKCdelta cleavage. H(2)O(2)-induced proteolytic activation of PKC was delta mediated by the activation of caspase-3. Most interestingly, both the general Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (25 microm) and the p60(Src) tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI; 5 microm) dramatically inhibited H(2)O(2) and the Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced PKCdelta cleavage, kinase activation, and apoptotic cell death. H(2)O(2) treatment also increased phosphorylation of PKCdelta at tyrosine site 311, which was effectively blocked by co-treatment with TSKI. Furthermore, N27 cells overexpressing a PKCdelta(Y311F) mutant protein exhibited resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced PKCdelta cleavage, caspase activation, and apoptosis. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that phosphorylation of Tyr-311 on PKCdelta can regulate the proteolytic activation and proapoptotic function of the kinase in dopaminergic neuronal cells.
AuthorsSiddharth Kaul, Vellareddy Anantharam, Yongjie Yang, Christopher J Choi, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
JournalThe Journal of biological chemistry (J Biol Chem) Vol. 280 Issue 31 Pg. 28721-30 (Aug 5 2005) ISSN: 0021-9258 [Print] United States
PMID15961393 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Tyrosine
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Prkcd protein, rat
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Protein Kinase C-delta
  • Casp3 protein, rat
  • Caspase 3
  • Caspases
  • Dopamine
  • Animals
  • Caspase 3
  • Caspases (metabolism)
  • Cell Death (drug effects)
  • Cell Line
  • DNA Fragmentation (drug effects)
  • Dopamine (physiology)
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (toxicity)
  • Mesencephalon
  • Neurons (cytology, drug effects, enzymology)
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Kinase C (metabolism)
  • Protein Kinase C-delta
  • Rats
  • Tyrosine (metabolism)

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