Prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastrointestinal symptoms and ulcer complications.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) produce symptoms of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease in up to 50% and up to 20%, respectively, of individuals taking them. Risk factors for NSAID-related gastric injury include age >70 years, history of ulcer disease, use of multiple agents (e.g., > or =2 NSAIDs, or an NSAID plus aspirin--even at cardioprotective doses), high doses of an NSAID, and concurrent use of corticosteroids or anticoagulants. In NSAID users, infection with Helicobacter pylori can produce additive or synergistic gastric mucosal injury. Several clinical strategies can decrease the risk for dyspepsia, ulceration, and the more serious complications in NSAID users. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) co-therapy has been shown to lower the incidence of dyspepsia in those taking NSAIDs. In those with an active ulcer, PPI therapy produces ulcer healing even in "tough-to-treat" individuals who require ongoing NSAID therapy. Maintenance of ulcer healing is significantly greater in those who receive ongoing PPI treatment compared with placebo, and adverse events and treatment withdrawals are fewer compared with their occurrence in persons treated with misoprostol. In those not receiving aspirin therapy, the use of an NSAID that is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 may result in fewer gastrointestinal symptoms compared with a traditional agent; however, studies have failed to show any decrease in healthcare resource utilization (including outpatient or emergency room visits, hospitalization rate, or use of any resource) with COX-2-selective therapy.
AuthorsDavid A Peura
JournalThe American journal of medicine (Am J Med) Vol. 117 Suppl 5A Pg. 63S-71S (Sep 6 2004) ISSN: 0002-9343 [Print] United States
PMID15478855 (Publication Type: Comparative Study, Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal (adverse effects, therapeutic use)
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors (adverse effects, therapeutic use)
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Dyspepsia (chemically induced, prevention & control)
  • Enzyme Inhibitors (therapeutic use)
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases (chemically induced, prevention & control)
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage (chemically induced, prevention & control)
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Primary Prevention (methods)
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • Risk Assessment
  • Stomach Ulcer (chemically induced, prevention & control)
  • Treatment Outcome

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