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JP-8 jet fuel exposure induces inflammatory cytokines in rat skin.

Abstract
The Department of Defense (DoD) has identified that one of the main complaints of personnel exposed to JP-8 jet fuel is irritant dermatitis. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the JP-8-induced inflammatory cytokine response in skin. JP-8 jet fuel or acetone control (300 microl) was applied to the denuded skin of rats once a day for 7 days. Skin samples from the exposed area were collected 2 and 24 h after the final exposure. Histological examination of skin biopsies showed neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed utilizing skin total RNA to examine the expression of various inflammatory cytokines. The CXC chemokine GROalpha was significantly upregulated at both time points, whereas GRObeta was only increased 2 h post final exposure. The CC chemokines MCP-1, Mip-1alpha, and eotaxin were induced at both time points, whereas Mip-1beta was induced only 24 h post exposure. Interleukins-1beta and -6 (IL-1beta and IL-6) mRNAs were significantly induced at both time points, while TNFalpha was not significantly different from control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of skin protein confirmed that MCP-1, TNFalpha, and IL-1beta were modulated as indicated by PCR analysis. However, skin IL-6 protein content was not increased 2 h post exposure, whereas it was significantly upregulated by jet fuel after 24 h. Data from the present study indicate that repeated (7 days) JP-8 exposure induces numerous proinflammatory cytokines in skin. The increased expression of these cytokines and chemokines may lead to increased inflammatory infiltrate in exposed skin, resulting in JP-8-induced irritant dermatitis.
AuthorsRandle M Gallucci, Sijy K O'Dell, Daniel Rabe, Laurence D Fechter
JournalInternational immunopharmacology (Int Immunopharmacol) Vol. 4 Issue 9 Pg. 1159-69 (Sep 2004) ISSN: 1567-5769 [Print] Netherlands
PMID15251112 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.)
Chemical References
  • Chemokines
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Cytokines
  • DNA Primers
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Interleukin-1
  • JP8 aviation fuel
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Topics
  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokines (metabolism)
  • Chemokines, CXC (biosynthesis)
  • Cytokines (biosynthesis)
  • DNA Primers
  • Dermatitis, Contact (metabolism, pathology)
  • Hydrocarbons (toxicity)
  • Inflammation (metabolism)
  • Interleukin-1 (biosynthesis)
  • Keratinocytes (metabolism)
  • Male
  • Neutrophil Infiltration (drug effects)
  • RNA, Messenger (biosynthesis, genetics)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Long-Evans
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Skin (drug effects, metabolism, pathology)
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (biosynthesis)
  • Up-Regulation (drug effects)

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