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Therapeutic treatments of phosgene-induced lung injury.

Abstract
A series of studies was performed to address treatment against the former chemical warfare edemagenic gas phosgene. Both in situ and in vivo models were used to assess the efficacy of postexposure treatment of phosgene-induced lung injury using clinically existing drugs. The degree of efficacy was judged by examining treatment effects on pulmonary edema formation (PEF) as measured by wet/dry weight (WW/DW) ratios, real-time (in situ) lung weight gain (LWG), survival rates (SR), odds ratios, and glutathione (GSH) redox states. Drugs included N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ibuprofen (IBU), aminophylline (AMIN), and isoproterenol (ISO). Using the in situ isolated perfused rabbit lung model (IPRLM), intratracheal (IT) NAC (40 mg/kg bolus) delivered 45-60 min after phosgene exposure (650 mg/m(3)) for10 min lowered pulmonary artery pressure, LWG, leukotrienes (LT) C(4)/D(4)/E(4), lipid peroxidation, and oxidized GSH. We concluded that NAC protected against phosgene-induced lung injury by acting as an antioxidant by maintaining protective levels of GSH, reducing both lipid peroxidation and production of arachidonic acid metabolites. Also in IPRLM, administration of AMIN (30 mg/kg) 80-90 min after phosgene exposure significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and perfusate LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4), reduced LWG, and prevented phosgene-induced decreases in lung tissue cAMP. These data suggest that protective mechanisms observed with AMIN involve decreased LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4) mediated pulmonary capillary permeability and attenuated lipid peroxidation. Direct antipermeability effects of AMIN-induced upregulation of cAMP on cellular contraction may also be important in protection against phosgene-induced lung injury. Posttreatment with ISO in the IPRLM by either combined intravascular (iv; infused into pulmonary artery at 24 microg/min infused) + IT (24 microg bolus) or IT route alone 50-60 min after phosgene exposure significantly lowered pulmonary artery pressure, tracheal pressure, and LWG. ISO treatment significantly enhanced GSH products or maintained protective levels when compared with results from phosgene-exposed only rabbits. These data suggest that protective mechanisms for ISO involve reduction in vascular pressure, decreased LTC(4)/D(4)/E(4)-mediated pulmonary capillary permeability, and favorably maintained lung tissue GSH redox states. For in vivo male mouse (CD-1, 25-30 g) studies IBU was administered ip within 20 min after a lethal dose of phosgene (32 mg/m(3) for 20 min) at 0 (saline), 3, 9, or 15 mg/mouse. Five hours later, a second IBU injection was given but at half the original doses (0, 1.5, 4.5, and 7.5 mg/mouse); therefore, these treatment groups are now referred to as the 0/0, 3/1.5, 9/4.5, and 15/7.5 mg IBU/mouse groups. SRs and odds ratios were calculated for each dose at 12 and 24 h. The 12-h survival was 63% for 9/4.5 mg IBU and 82% for the 15/7.5 mg IBU groups, compared with 25% for saline-treated phosgene-exposed mice. At 24 h, those survival rates were reduced to 19%, 19%, and 6%, respectively. In the 15/7.5 mg IBU group, lung WW/DW ratios were significantly lower than in saline-treated mice at 12 h. Lipid peroxidation was lower only for the 9/4.5 mg IBU dose; however, nonprotein sulfhydryls (a measure of GSH) were greater across all IBU doses. The odds ratio was 5 for the 9/4.5 IBU group at 12 h and 13 for the 15/7.5 mg IBU group, compared with 3.5 for both groups at 24 h. IBU posttreatment increased the survival of mice at 12 h by reducing PEF, lipid peroxidation, and GSH depletion. In conclusion, effective treatment of phosgene-induced lung injury involves early postexposure intervention that could reduce free radical species responsible for lipid peroxidation, correct the imbalance in the GSH redox state, and prevent the release of biological mediators such as leukotrienes, which are accountable for increased permeability.
AuthorsAlfred M Sciuto, Holcombe H Hurt
JournalInhalation toxicology (Inhal Toxicol) Vol. 16 Issue 8 Pg. 565-80 (Jul 2004) ISSN: 0895-8378 [Print] United States
PMID15204747 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Chemical Warfare Agents
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Phosgene
Topics
  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Animals
  • Chemical Warfare Agents (toxicity)
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Inhalation Exposure
  • Lung Diseases (drug therapy, etiology, pathology)
  • Mice
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations (classification)
  • Phosgene (administration & dosage, toxicity)
  • Rabbits

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