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Smallpox: clinical features, prevention, and management.

AbstractOBJECTIVE:
To describe a general overview of smallpox, clinical presentation, diagnosis, adverse events, and management of both pre- and postexposure vaccination.
DATA SOURCES:
Literature was identified by search of MEDLINE (1966-June 2003) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1966-May 2003) databases using the key terms smallpox, bioterrorism, biological warfare, and smallpox vaccine.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:
Articles identified from data sources were evaluated, and relevant information was included in this review.
DATA SYNTHESIS:
Smallpox is spread by human-to-human contact with an infected host and therefore can be contagious. The mortality rate for smallpox is approximately 30%. While the disease was completely eradicated by 1980 with successful use of smallpox vaccine, concern has been raised that smallpox may emerge as a tool of bioterrorism. This concern, combined with the reality of current smallpox vaccination programs in the military and selected civilian populations, mandates a clear understanding of vaccination-related adverse events and contraindications by all healthcare professionals. The vaccine may cause moderate to severe adverse events such as eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, and generalized vaccinia.
CONCLUSIONS:
The balance between the risks and benefits of mass vaccination in prevention of an epidemic is not clear. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has established a guideline for appropriate use of smallpox vaccine in the civilian population.
AuthorsRoy Guharoy, Robert Panzik, John A Noviasky, Edward P Krenzelok, Donald C Blair
JournalThe Annals of pharmacotherapy (Ann Pharmacother) Vol. 38 Issue 3 Pg. 440-7 (Mar 2004) ISSN: 1060-0280 [Print] United States
PMID14755066 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Organophosphonates
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Smallpox Vaccine
  • Cytosine
  • cidofovir
Topics
  • Antiviral Agents (therapeutic use)
  • Bioterrorism
  • Cytosine (analogs & derivatives, therapeutic use)
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Organophosphonates
  • Organophosphorus Compounds (therapeutic use)
  • Smallpox (drug therapy, physiopathology, prevention & control)
  • Smallpox Vaccine (adverse effects)

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