Differential roles of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced cell death in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested as important mediators of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in vivo. However, our previous studies have shown that cisplatin-induced cell death in vitro could not be prevented by scavengers of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in rabbit renal cortical slices. This discrepancy may be attributed to differential roles of ROS in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. We therefore examined, in this study, the roles of ROS in necrosis and apoptosis induced by cisplatin in primary cultured rabbit proximal tubule. Cisplatin induced necrosis at high concentrations over a few hours and apoptosis at much lower concentrations over longer periods. Necrosis induced by high concentration of cisplatin was prevented by a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger (tiron), hydrogen peroxide scavengers (catalase and pyruvate), and antioxidants (Trolox and deferoxamine), whereas hydroxyl radical scavengers (dimethythiourea and thiourea) did not affect the cisplatin-induced necrosis. However, apoptosis induced by lower concentration of cisplatin was partially prevented by tiron and hydroxyl radical scavengers but not by hydrogen peroxide scavengers and antioxidants. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis was mediated by the signaling pathway that is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. These effects were prevented by tiron and dimethylthiourea but not by catalase. Dimethylthiourea produced a significant protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure, and the effect was associated with an inhibition of apoptosis. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide is involved in the cisplatin-induced necrosis, whereas hydroxyl radical is responsible for the cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The protective effects of hydroxyl radical scavengers are associated with an inhibition of cytochrome c release and caspase activation.
AuthorsSu Mi Baek, Chae Hwa Kwon, Jae Ho Kim, Jae Suk Woo, Jin Sup Jung, Yong Keun Kim
JournalThe Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine (J Lab Clin Med) Vol. 142 Issue 3 Pg. 178-86 (Sep 2003) ISSN: 0022-2143 [Print] United States
PMID14532906 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't)
Chemical References
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Hydroxyl Radical
  • 1,3-dimethylthiourea
  • Cytochromes c
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Caspases
  • Thiourea
  • Cisplatin
  • Acute Kidney Injury (chemically induced, metabolism, pathology)
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents (pharmacology)
  • Apoptosis (drug effects, physiology)
  • Caspases (metabolism)
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cisplatin (pharmacology)
  • Cytochromes c (metabolism)
  • Free Radical Scavengers (pharmacology)
  • Hydrogen Peroxide (metabolism)
  • Hydroxyl Radical (metabolism)
  • Kidney Tubules, Proximal (cytology, metabolism)
  • Necrosis
  • Rabbits
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (metabolism)
  • Thiourea (analogs & derivatives, pharmacology)

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