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[Theoretical aspects of the relationship between diabetic macroangiopathy and hyperinsulinism].

Abstract
Epidemiological and clinical data suggest a relationship between hyperinsulinism and macroangiopathy in non insulin-dependent diabetes. On the other hand, a relationship between the plasma free insulin level and macroangiopathy has not been documented in insulin-dependent diabetes. Other abnormalities in addition to hyperinsulinism and glucose intolerance are frequently associated in the presence of insulin resistance and have been grouped by Reaven under the term syndrome X: raised VLDL triglycerides, decreased HDL, and raised blood pressure. Iatrogenic hyperinsulinism appears to be an arterial risk factor, but by what mechanism may it also constitute an independent risk factor? The following theoretical aspects of a possible atherogenic role of hyperinsulinism are currently being investigated: a) insulin stimulates the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells either directly or via a rise in IGF1; b) insulin induces lipogenesis in the intima-media, but it has not been demonstrated that this in situ lipogenesis is atherogenic; c) insulin raises the VLDL production, decreases HDL and modifies the clearance of LDL; d) insulin increases blood pressure by stimulating both the renal reabsorption of sodium and the sympathetic nervous system; insulin resistance may also be expressed at the level of the Na-K-ATPase of vascular smooth muscle cells by decreasing the vasodilator effect of the hormone; e) lastly, insulin induces a defect of fibrinolysis mediated by an increase in the level of plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI1). In conclusion, the combination of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinism is probably damaging to the artery. Therapeutic intervention studies are necessary to confirm and define the role of hyperinsulinism in macroangiopathy and to answer the unresolved questions: direct or indirect role? effect of endogenous and/or exogenous hyperinsulinism?
AuthorsM Leutenegger
JournalPresse meĢdicale (Paris, France : 1983) (Presse Med) Vol. 21 Issue 28 Pg. 1324-9 (Sep 9 1992) ISSN: 0755-4982 [Print] FRANCE
Vernacular TitleAspects théoriques de la relation de la macroangiopathie diabétique et de l'hyperinsulinisme.
PMID1438101 (Publication Type: English Abstract, Journal Article, Review)
Chemical References
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Lipoproteins, VLDL
Topics
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arteriosclerosis (etiology, physiopathology)
  • Cholesterol, HDL (blood)
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (blood, complications)
  • Diabetic Angiopathies (etiology)
  • Female
  • Fibrinolysis (physiology)
  • Humans
  • Hyperinsulinism (blood, complications, physiopathology)
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias (complications)
  • Hypolipoproteinemias (complications)
  • Insulin Resistance (physiology)
  • Lipoproteins, VLDL (blood)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged

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