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Involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 in the potentiation of allyl alcohol-induced liver injury by bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

Abstract
Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) augments the hepatotoxicity of a number of xenobiotics including allyl alcohol. The mechanism for this effect is known to involve the inflammatory response elicited by LPS. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of eicosanoids are important aspects of inflammation, therefore studies were undertaken to investigate the role of COX-2 in LPS-induced enhancement of liver injury from allyl alcohol. Rats were pretreated (iv) with a noninjurious dose of LPS or sterile saline vehicle and 2 h later were treated (ip) with a noninjurious dose of allyl alcohol or saline vehicle. COX-2 mRNA was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and liver injury was assessed from activities in serum of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively) and from histology. Liver injury was observed only in rats cotreated with LPS and allyl alcohol. Serum ALT activity was increased by 4 h after administration of LPS and continued to increase through 8 h. COX-2 mRNA was detectable at low levels in livers from rats receiving only the vehicles at any time up to 8 h. Expression of COX-2 mRNA was increased by 30 min after administration of LPS and remained elevated through 6 h. Allyl alcohol treatment alone caused an increase in COX-2 mRNA at 4 h (2 h after allyl alcohol) that lasted less than 2 h. In livers from rats cotreated with LPS and allyl alcohol, levels of COX-2 mRNA were greater than levels seen with either LPS or allyl alcohol alone. The increased expression of COX-2 mRNA was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of prostaglandin (PG) D(2) in plasma. Plasma PGD(2) concentration was increased to a greater extent in rats treated with LPS plus allyl alcohol compared to allyl alcohol or LPS alone. Pretreatment with the COX-2 selective inhibitor, NS-398, abolished the increase in plasma PGD(2) and reduced the increase in ALT and AST activities observed in rats cotreated with LPS and allyl alcohol. NS-398 did not affect liver injury from allyl alcohol alone administered at a larger, hepatotoxic dose. In addition, ibuprofen, a nonselective inhibitor of cyclooxygenases, did not protect against liver injury from LPS plus allyl alcohol. In isolated hepatocytes PGD(2), but not PGE(2), reduced the concentration of allyl alcohol required to cause half-maximal cytotoxicity. These results suggest that products of COX-2 play a role in the augmentation of allyl alcohol-induced liver injury by LPS.
AuthorsP E Ganey , Y W Barton, S Kinser, R A Sneed, C C Barton, R A Roth
JournalToxicology and applied pharmacology (Toxicol Appl Pharmacol) Vol. 174 Issue 2 Pg. 113-21 (Jul 15 2001) ISSN: 0041-008X [Print] United States
PMID11446826 (Publication Type: Journal Article)
CopyrightCopyright 2001 Academic Press.
Chemical References
  • Isoenzymes
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Propanols
  • allyl alcohol
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
Topics
  • Animals
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Drug Synergism
  • Isoenzymes (metabolism)
  • Lipopolysaccharides (pharmacology)
  • Liver (drug effects, enzymology, injuries, metabolism)
  • Liver Diseases, Alcoholic (enzymology, pathology)
  • Male
  • Propanols (pharmacology)
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases (metabolism)
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Time Factors

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