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M1 prostate cancer with a serum level of prostate-specific antigen less than 10 ng/mL.

AbstractBACKGROUND:
M1 prostate cancer, which is invasive, is usually associated with a serum level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) greater than 10 ng/mL, but cases are occurring where the serum PSA level is less than this. The present study investigated the clinical and pathologic characteristics of these cases of M1 prostate cancer.
METHODS:
Between April 1989 and March 1998, 167 cases of M1 prostate cancer were diagnosed by transrectal needle biopsy and eight of these with a serum PSA level less than 10 ng/mL were investigated. The patients' ages ranged from 57 to 79 years (median, 73) and the serum PSA levels ranged from less than 4.0 to 9.8 ng/mL. In all cases except one, the distal metastasis was to bones only. All cases had received hormonal therapy as the initial therapy. Immunostaining of PSA, chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, carcinoembryonic antigen and vimentin were performed in five of the eight cases.
RESULTS:
Four cases were poorly differentiated, two were undifferentiated, one was a mixture of poorly differentiated and undifferentiated and one case was moderately differentiated. Of the five cases in the immunohistochemical study, three cases with an undifferentiated carcinoma component showed negative staining reactions for PSA and all cases were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. Four of the patients died of prostate cancer. In two of these four cases, hormonal therapy was ineffective, but systemic chemotherapy and irradiation therapy had been moderately effective. The overall 3-year survival rate was 33.3%.
CONCLUSIONS:
The cases of M1 prostate cancer with a serum PSA less than 10 ng/mL are almost always poorly differentiated or undifferentiated and have a poor prognosis compared with the usual M1 prostate cancer. Because hormonal therapy is ineffective in these cases, systemic chemotherapy and irradiation therapy should be chosen as the initial therapy.
AuthorsS Yamamoto, T Ito, A Akiyama, T Aizawa, M Miki, M Tachibana
JournalInternational journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association (Int J Urol) Vol. 8 Issue 7 Pg. 374-9 (Jul 2001) ISSN: 0919-8172 [Print] Australia
PMID11442659 (Publication Type: Case Reports, Journal Article)
Chemical References
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • Diethylstilbestrol
  • Flutamide
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
Topics
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal (therapeutic use)
  • Biopsy, Needle
  • Bone Neoplasms (secondary)
  • Carcinoembryonic Antigen (analysis)
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diethylstilbestrol (therapeutic use)
  • Flutamide (therapeutic use)
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (therapeutic use)
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen (blood)
  • Prostatic Neoplasms (blood, drug therapy, mortality, pathology)
  • Survival Rate
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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