Viral wasting syndrome of swine: experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in gnotobiotic swine by coinfection with porcine circovirus 2 and porcine parvovirus.

One-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated intranasally with in vitro passaged porcine circovirus 1 (PCV-1), PCV-2, and porcine parvovirus (PPV) alone or in combination (PCV-1/PCV-2, PCV-1/PPV, and PCV-2/PPV). Piglets were evaluated for 1) the development of porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), 2) distribution of viral antigens by immunochemistry, and 3) viremia and the presence of viral DNA in nasal and ocular secretions and feces. All single agent-infected piglets and piglets infected with PCV-1/PCV-2 or PCV-1/PPV were clinically asymptomatic. They were transiently viremic and seroconverted to homologous virus(es). At termination of the study on postinfection day (PID) 35, microscopic lesions were restricted to focal inflammatory cell infiltrates in livers and myocardia. One piglet given PCV-1/PPV was PPV viremic for 2 weeks after infection and had lymphangiectasia of the spiral and descending colon associated with granulomatous inflammation. All four PCV-2/PPV-inoculated piglets developed PMWS, characterized by sudden onset of depression and anorexia, icterus, and submucosal edema. One piglet became moribund on PID 27, and the remaining three piglets were euthanatized between PID 27 and PID 30 because of severe disease. Lymph nodes were small and the livers were mottled. Disseminated angiocentric granulomatous inflammation was present in all tissues examined except the brain. Multiple lightly basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were identified in macrophages and histiocytes. PCV-2 antigen was widely distributed within macrophages; PPV antigen was sparse. Hepatocellular necrosis and bile retention were prominent. PCV-2 DNA was identified in ocular, fecal, and nasal secretions. Terminal sera contained antibodies to PPV (4/4) and PCV-2 (3/ 4). Production of PMWS in gnotobiotic swine appears to require PCV-2 and additional infectious agents such as PPV for full disease expression in gnotobiotic piglets.
AuthorsS Krakowka, J A Ellis, B Meehan, S Kennedy, F McNeilly, G Allan
JournalVeterinary pathology (Vet Pathol) Vol. 37 Issue 3 Pg. 254-63 (May 2000) ISSN: 0300-9858 [Print] UNITED STATES
PMID10810990 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.)
  • Animals
  • Cell Transformation, Viral
  • Circovirus (pathogenicity)
  • Colon (pathology, virology)
  • Female
  • Germ-Free Life
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Parvovirus (pathogenicity)
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (veterinary)
  • Pregnancy
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases (virology)
  • Viremia (veterinary)
  • Wasting Syndrome (veterinary, virology)

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