Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.
Also Known As:
Extremely Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, Extremely Drug-Resistant; XDR-TB; Drug-Resistant Tuberculoses, Extensively; Drug-Resistant Tuberculoses, Extremely; Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Extensively; Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Extremely; Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis; Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculoses; Extremely Drug Resistant Tuberculosis; Extremely Drug-Resistant Tuberculoses; Tuberculoses, Extensively Drug-Resistant; Tuberculoses, Extremely Drug-Resistant; Tuberculosis, Extensively Drug Resistant; Tuberculosis, Extremely Drug Resistant; Tuberculosis, Extensively Drug-Resistant
Networked: 286 relevant articles (18 outcomes, 31 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Infection
2. Tuberculosis (Tuberculoses)
3. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis)
4. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
5. Communicable Diseases (Infectious Diseases)


1. Amaral, Leonard: 11 articles (03/2014 - 04/2008)
2. Lange, C: 8 articles (12/2015 - 10/2007)
3. Koh, Won-Jung: 7 articles (11/2015 - 08/2009)
4. Molnar, Joseph: 7 articles (03/2014 - 05/2009)
5. Migliori, G B: 7 articles (10/2012 - 10/2007)
6. Viveiros, Miguel: 6 articles (01/2014 - 04/2008)
7. Centis, Rosella: 6 articles (07/2013 - 10/2009)
8. Sotgiu, Giovanni: 6 articles (07/2013 - 10/2009)
9. Migliori, Giovanni Battista: 6 articles (07/2013 - 10/2009)
10. Centis, R: 6 articles (10/2012 - 06/2008)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis:
1. linezolid (Zyvox)FDA Link
2. Thioridazine (Mellaril)FDA LinkGeneric
3. butyl 3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)oxanilate (MTB)IBA
4. Rifampin (Rifampicin)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2011 - "Given the escalating size of the problem of MDR-TB and XDR-TB worldwide, gigantic instillation of resources is required for control of this formidable challenge, largely through more accurate and rapid drug susceptibility testing (especially for rifampicin and fluoroquinolone), regular drug-resistance surveillance, development of new antituberculosis drugs and other therapeutic modalities, intensive infection control, especially in HIV care settings, as well as strengthening of currently functioning DOTS and Drug-Resistance Programmes."
02/01/2009 - "Since the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, there has been a call for a rapid assay to detect rifampicin-resistant strains that can be implemented into a routine service to analyse all strains in a specific geographical location. "
04/01/2008 - "This method, named "FAST-Rif" ("fluorometric assay for susceptibility testing of rifampin"), allowed the rapid, reliable, and easy detection of genotypic rifampin resistance as a marker for MDR-TB and XDR-TB."
03/18/2008 - "The analysis of the survey led to the following recommendations for strengthening TB laboratory services: (1) implementing of the published European standards for TB laboratory services with respect to infrastructure, national reference functions, biosafety, human resources, quality assurance, operational research (including evaluation of new medical diagnostics), accuracy and speed, appropriately trained staff; (2) ensuring that laboratories only perform activities for which they have demonstrated proficiency; (3) implement validated and standardised second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST), including drugs used to define extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB); (4) aiming to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance in over 90% of cultures and cases from smear-positive sputum directly within one to two working days. "
01/01/2014 - "Whilst the genomic data contributed to elucidate the phylogenetic positioning of circulating MDR-TB strains, showing a high predominance of a single SNP cluster group 5. Furthermore, a genome-wide phylogeny analysis from these strains, together with 19 publicly available genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, revealed two major clades responsible for M/XDR-TB in the region: Lisboa3 and Q1 (LAM).The data presented by this study yielded insights on microevolution and identification of novel compensatory mutations associated with rifampicin resistance in rpoB and rpoC. "
5. Carbon MonoxideIBA
6. Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
7. moxifloxacin (Avelox)FDA Link
8. Clofazimine (Lamprene)FDA Link
9. AgarIBA
10. Oxazolidinones (2 Oxazolidone)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
2. Therapeutics
3. Salvage Therapy
4. Injections
5. Directly Observed Therapy