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Cranial Nerve Injuries

Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Also Known As:
Cranial Neuropathies, Traumatic; Cranial Nerve Injury; Cranial Neuropathy, Traumatic; Injuries, Cranial Nerve; Injury, Cranial Nerve; Nerve Injuries, Cranial; Nerve Injury, Cranial; Neuropathies, Traumatic Cranial; Neuropathy, Traumatic Cranial; Traumatic Cranial Neuropathies; Traumatic Cranial Neuropathy
Networked: 121 relevant articles (4 outcomes, 11 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Wounds and Injuries (Trauma)
2. Neoplasms (Cancer)
3. Carotid Body Tumor
4. Paraganglioma (Paragangliomas)
5. Glomus Jugulare Tumor

Experts

1. Mohammadi, Siamak: 2 articles (04/2022 - 01/2022)
2. Panagides, Vassili: 2 articles (04/2022 - 01/2022)
3. Rodés-Cabau, Josep: 2 articles (04/2022 - 01/2022)
4. Calio', Francesco G: 2 articles (10/2020 - 04/2017)
5. Illuminati, Giulio: 2 articles (10/2020 - 04/2017)
6. Pizzardi, Giulia: 2 articles (10/2020 - 04/2017)
7. Ricco, Jean-Baptiste: 2 articles (10/2020 - 04/2017)
8. Nolan, Brian W: 2 articles (01/2020 - 01/2018)
9. Schermerhorn, Marc L: 2 articles (01/2020 - 01/2018)
10. Impedovo, Giovanni: 2 articles (08/2019 - 01/2009)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Cranial Nerve Injuries:
1. Nimodipine (Modus)FDA LinkGeneric
2. Hormones (Hormone)IBA
10/13/2021 - "Paragangliomas (PGLs) are benign hypervascular tumors that can develop in head and neck at different locations, primarily in the carotid bifurcation, jugular bulb, tympanic plexus, and vagal ganglia.1 Different gene mutations have been linked to the familial inherited forms, which can represent approximately 30% of all PGLs.1,2 These are classified into 5 different clinical syndromes: PGL 1 to 5.1 These patients have increased risk for synchronous and metachronous lesions requiring an extensive work-up for hormone secretion and other associated neoplasms, as well as attentive follow-up for lifelong management.1,3 Surgical resection is the best treatment option as it can be curative when the resection is total.2-4 Preservation of the lower cranial nerve function is central to the management of head and neck PGLs, given the gravity of bilateral injuries.3 Irradiation therapy should be considered if the risk for bilateral lower cranial nerve injuries is high.5 Surgically, intrabulbar resection with preservation of the medial wall of the jugular bulb protects the lower cranial nerve function.3 Other technical finesses, including maintaining the facial nerve in its bony fallopian canal (facial bridge), avoiding carotid artery sacrifice, preservation of the ear canal, and preoperative embolization, contributed markedly to outcome improvement.2,3 We report a case of a 34-yr-old male with PGL 3 with a left glomus jugulare tumor that recurred and a right carotid body tumor. "
3. Dexamethasone (Maxidex)FDA LinkGeneric
4. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)IBA
5. yttrium-aluminum-garnetIBA
6. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA)IBA
7. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors)IBA
8. General AnestheticsIBA
9. Tacrolimus (Prograf)FDA LinkGeneric
10. Calcitonin Gene-Related PeptideIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Therapeutics
10/01/2016 - "Cranial nerve injury is associated with dual antiplatelet therapy use and cervical hematoma after carotid endarterectomy."
01/01/2011 - "Although microvascular decompression (MVD) is the only etiological therapy for TN with the highest initial efficacy and durability of all treatments, it is nonetheless associated with special risks (cerebellar hematoma, cranial nerve injury, stroke, and death) not seen with the commonly performed ablative procedures. "
10/13/2021 - "Paragangliomas (PGLs) are benign hypervascular tumors that can develop in head and neck at different locations, primarily in the carotid bifurcation, jugular bulb, tympanic plexus, and vagal ganglia.1 Different gene mutations have been linked to the familial inherited forms, which can represent approximately 30% of all PGLs.1,2 These are classified into 5 different clinical syndromes: PGL 1 to 5.1 These patients have increased risk for synchronous and metachronous lesions requiring an extensive work-up for hormone secretion and other associated neoplasms, as well as attentive follow-up for lifelong management.1,3 Surgical resection is the best treatment option as it can be curative when the resection is total.2-4 Preservation of the lower cranial nerve function is central to the management of head and neck PGLs, given the gravity of bilateral injuries.3 Irradiation therapy should be considered if the risk for bilateral lower cranial nerve injuries is high.5 Surgically, intrabulbar resection with preservation of the medial wall of the jugular bulb protects the lower cranial nerve function.3 Other technical finesses, including maintaining the facial nerve in its bony fallopian canal (facial bridge), avoiding carotid artery sacrifice, preservation of the ear canal, and preoperative embolization, contributed markedly to outcome improvement.2,3 We report a case of a 34-yr-old male with PGL 3 with a left glomus jugulare tumor that recurred and a right carotid body tumor. "
2. Denervation
3. Carotid Endarterectomy
4. Endarterectomy (Thromboendarterectomy)
5. Neck Dissection (Radical Neck Dissection)
01/01/2023 - "In this study, use of neuromuscular blockade intraoperatively during neck dissection was not associated with increased rates of iatrogenic cranial nerve injury. "
01/01/2023 - "We examined the association between the use of intraoperative neuromuscular blockade and iatrogenic cranial nerve injury during neck dissection. "
01/01/2023 - "Cranial nerve injury is an uncommon but significant complication of neck dissection. "
06/01/2005 - "Certain patient subsets, including those with severe cardiac and pulmonary disease and those with local/anatomic risk factors (including recurrent stenosis following CEA, cervical radiation therapy, prior radical neck dissection, and surgically inaccessible lesions) are at increased risk of stroke, cranial nerve injury and non-Q myocardial infarction following CEA, and may be better served by carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). "
01/01/2023 - "All 851 patients were considered to be at high risk for CEA and were included and stratified using high-risk anatomic criteria (ie, contralateral occlusion, tandem stenosis, high cervical artery stenosis, restenosis after previous endarterectomy, bilateral carotid stenting, hostile neck anatomy with previous neck irradiation, neck dissection, cervical spine immobility) or high-risk physiologic criteria (ie, age >75 years, multivessel coronary artery disease, history of angina, congestive heart failure New York Heart Association class III/IV, left ventricular ejection fraction <30%, recent MI, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, permanent contralateral cranial nerve injury, chronic renal insufficiency). "