Central Sleep Apnea (Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome)

A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Also Known As:
Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome; Sleep Apnea, Central; Apnea, Central; Central Sleep Apnea, Primary; Central Sleep Apnea, Secondary; Central Sleep Disordered Breathing; Newborn Primary Sleep Apneas; Primary Central Sleep Apnea; Primary Sleep Apneas of Newborn; Secondary Central Sleep Apnea; Sleep Apnea, Newborn, Primary; Alveolar Hypoventilation, Central; Alveolar Hypoventilations, Central; Apnea, Central Sleep; Apneas, Central; Apneas, Central Sleep; Breathing, Central Sleep-Disordered; Breathings, Central Sleep-Disordered; Central Alveolar Hypoventilation; Central Apnea; Central Apneas; Central Sleep Apneas; Central Sleep-Disordered Breathing; Central Sleep-Disordered Breathings; Hypoventilations, Central Alveolar; Sleep Apneas, Central; Sleep Disordered Breathing, Central; Sleep-Disordered Breathings, Central; Apnea, Sleep, Central; Hypoventilation, Central Alveolar; Ondine Syndrome; Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Central
Networked: 428 relevant articles (35 outcomes, 39 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Apnea
2. Heart Failure
3. Sleep Apnea Syndromes (Sleep Apnea)
4. Central Sleep Apnea (Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome)
5. Cheyne-Stokes Respiration


1. Javaheri, Shahrokh: 12 articles (12/2015 - 02/2003)
2. Bradley, T Douglas: 10 articles (07/2015 - 05/2005)
3. Morgenthaler, Timothy I: 10 articles (05/2013 - 09/2006)
4. Badr, M Safwan: 5 articles (12/2013 - 01/2006)
5. Floras, John S: 5 articles (03/2013 - 05/2005)
6. CANPAP Investigators: 5 articles (03/2010 - 06/2001)
7. Skatrud, James B: 5 articles (03/2009 - 05/2002)
8. Malhotra, Atul: 4 articles (09/2015 - 05/2010)
9. Arzt, Michael: 4 articles (01/2014 - 06/2006)
10. Chowdhuri, Susmita: 4 articles (12/2013 - 01/2010)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Central Sleep Apnea:
1. OxygenIBA
2. Acetazolamide (Diamox)FDA LinkGeneric
3. Oxyhemoglobins (Oxyhemoglobin)IBA
4. Carbon DioxideIBA
5. Theophylline (Theon)FDA LinkGeneric
6. Congenital central hypoventilation syndromeIBA
8. mirtazapine (Rexer)FDA LinkGeneric
9. BenzodiazepinesIBA
10. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Natrecor)FDA Link

Therapies and Procedures

1. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
2. Tracheostomy
3. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
4. Mechanical Ventilators (Ventilator)
5. Positive-Pressure Respiration (PEEP)