Tyrosinemias (Tyrosinemia)

A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)
Also Known As:
Tyrosinemia; Tyrosinemia, Hereditary; 4-Hydroxyphenol Pyruvic Acid Oxidase Deficiency Disease; 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Deficiency; 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid Oxidase Deficiency; Deficiency Disease, 4-Hydroxyphenol Pyruvic Acid Oxidase; Deficiency Disease, Fumarylacetoacetase; Deficiency Disease, Tyrosine Transaminase; Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency; Hepatorenal Tyrosinemia; Hereditary Tyrosinemia, Type I; Hereditary Tyrosinemia, Type II; Hereditary Tyrosinemia, Type III; Hereditary Tyrosinemias; Hypertyrosinemia; Hypertyrosinemia, Type I; Keratosis Palmoplantaris with Corneal Dystrophy; Oregon Type Tyrosinemia; Richner-Hanhart Syndrome; Richner-Hanhart Syndrome, Tyrosinosis, Oculocutaneous Type; Tat Deficiency; Tyrosine Aminotransferase Deficiency; Tyrosine Transaminase Deficiency; Tyrosinemia Type 1; Tyrosinemia, Type 2; Tyrosinemia, Type I; Tyrosinemia, Type II; Tyrosinemia, Type III; Tyrosinemias, Hereditary; Tyrosinosis, Oculocutaneous Type; 2 Tyrosinemias, Type; 4 Hydroxyphenol Pyruvic Acid Oxidase Deficiency Disease; Deficiencies, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase; Deficiencies, Fumarylacetoacetase; Deficiencies, Tat; Deficiency Disease, 4 Hydroxyphenol Pyruvic Acid Oxidase; Deficiency Diseases, Fumarylacetoacetase; Deficiency, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase; Deficiency, Fumarylacetoacetase; Deficiency, Tat; Dioxygenase Deficiencies, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate; Dioxygenase Deficiency, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate; Disease, Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency; Diseases, Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency; Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiencies; Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency Diseases; Hepatorenal Tyrosinemias; Hereditary Tyrosinemia; Hypertyrosinemias, Type I; Oculocutaneous Type Tyrosinoses; Oculocutaneous Type Tyrosinosis; Richner Hanhart Syndrome; Richner-Hanhart Syndromes; Syndrome, Richner-Hanhart; Syndromes, Richner-Hanhart; Tat Deficiencies; Type 2 Tyrosinemia; Type 2 Tyrosinemias; Type I Hypertyrosinemia; Type I Hypertyrosinemias; Type I Tyrosinemia; Type I Tyrosinemias; Type II Tyrosinemia; Type II Tyrosinemias; Type III Tyrosinemia; Type III Tyrosinemias; Type Tyrosinoses, Oculocutaneous; Type Tyrosinosis, Oculocutaneous; Tyrosinemia Type 1s; Tyrosinemia, Hepatorenal; Tyrosinemias, Hepatorenal; Tyrosinemias, Type 2; Tyrosinemias, Type I; Tyrosinemias, Type II; Tyrosinemias, Type III; Tyrosinoses, Oculocutaneous Type; 4 Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Deficiency Disease; Fumarylacetoacetase Deficiency Disease; Tyrosine Transaminase Deficiency Disease
Networked: 726 relevant articles (24 outcomes, 48 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Alkaptonuria
2. Inborn Genetic Diseases (Disease, Hereditary)
3. Liver Diseases (Liver Disease)
4. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Hepatoma)
5. Neoplasms (Cancer)


1. Streck, Emilio L: 15 articles (01/2020 - 12/2012)
2. van Spronsen, Francjan J: 14 articles (01/2022 - 02/2014)
3. Carvalho-Silva, Milena: 14 articles (01/2020 - 12/2012)
4. Ferreira, Gustavo C: 14 articles (01/2020 - 12/2012)
5. Scaini, Giselli: 13 articles (01/2020 - 12/2012)
6. Tanguay, Robert M: 13 articles (01/2019 - 10/2003)
7. Schuck, Patrícia F: 12 articles (01/2020 - 12/2012)
8. Grompe, Markus: 12 articles (01/2017 - 12/2002)
9. Hickey, Raymond D: 10 articles (09/2020 - 10/2011)
10. Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca: 10 articles (06/2020 - 01/2015)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Tyrosinemias:
1. nitisinone (Orfadin)FDA Link
2. Tyrosine (L-Tyrosine)FDA Link
3. succinylacetoneIBA
4. fumarylacetoacetase (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase)IBA
5. Homogentisic AcidIBA
6. EnzymesIBA
7. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
8. Phenylalanine (L-Phenylalanine)FDA Link
9. Amino AcidsFDA Link
10. DioxygenasesIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Liver Transplantation
2. Therapeutics
3. Transplantation
4. Protein-Restricted Diet (Diet, Protein Restricted)
5. Diet Therapy (Therapy, Diet)